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EDITORIAL: Positioning yoga in the COVID-19 pandemic
Shirley Telles
Yoga Mimamsa, Year 2020, Volume 52, Issue 1 [p. 1-4]
DOI: 10.4103/ym.ym_10_20
EDITORIAL: A perspective on yoga research: Past to present
Sat Bir S Khalsa
Yoga Mimamsa, Year 2017, Volume 49, Issue 1 [p. 1-2]
DOI: 10.4103/ym.ym_10_17
REVIEW ARTICLE: Diverse dimensions of Yoga
Ananda Balayogi Bhavanani
Yoga Mimamsa, Year 2014, Volume 46, Issue 1 [p. 3-8]
DOI: 10.4103/0044-0507.137846
Yoga is a word very commonly used in the world today and carries various connotations depending on its usage. It has been defined in various manners as an art and science, as well as the process of conscious evolution. All human beings can gain a lot from the bountiful dimensions of Yoga, which enables them to manifest their inherent divinity, the universal potentiality that lies dormant unless channelized. "All souls are potentially divine," said Swami Vivekananda and, indeed, they are. This article aims to elucidate the diverse dimensions of Yoga that include the dimensions related to Indian culture as well as those associated with health, therapy, society, education, and research. Various physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual benefits attainable through Yoga are explained in detail, highlighting the multiple sub-dimensions of these major fields. Yoga, which emphasizes the universal, is a perfect foil to those human activities which glorify the personal. In short, it may be safely said that the practice of Yoga as a unified whole helps the individual shift from an "I"-centric approach to a "we"- centric approach. The beauty of Yoga is that these abstract principles become concrete by the daily practice of the techniques available in the integrated system. Once the "seed of Yoga" finds fertile soil, these concepts grow naturally, slowly but surely taking root in all aspects of life.
MODERN RESEARCH ON CHINESE MATERIA MEDICA: Tonic herbs and herbal mixtures in Chinese medicine
Thomas Efferth, Letian Shan, Zhuo-Wen Zhang
World Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Year 2016, Volume 2, Issue 1 [p. 10-25]
DOI: 10.15806/j.issn.2311-8571.2015.0037
This review results from a PubMed-based data-mining of scientific literature concerning typical tonic herbs and formulas of Chinese herbal medicine and their application principle under the theory of CM. We have focused on two aspects of tonic activity: body tonification against qi 气-, blood血-, yin阴- and yang阳-deficiency, respectively, and organ (Zang 脏and Fu腑) tonification against heart-, liver-, spleen/stomach-, lung-, and kidney-deficiency, respectively. Body-tonifying herbs are: Astragalus Membranaceus Radix (Huang-qi黄芪) and Panax Ginseng Radix (Ren-shen人参) for qi-tonification; Angelicae Sinensis Radix (Dang-gui当归) and Rehmannia Glutinosa Radix Preparata (Shu-di熟地) for blood-tonification; Ophiopogon Japonicus Radix (Mai-dong麦冬) and Scrophularia Ningpoensis Radix (Xuan-shen玄参) for yin-deficiency; Myristica Fragrans Semen (Rou-dou-kou肉豆蔻) and Psoralea Corylifolia Fructus (Bu-gu-zhi补骨脂) for yang-deficiency. The corresponding CM formulas are: Bu-zhong-yi-qi decoction (补中益气汤) for qi-tonification; Si-wu decoction (四物汤) for blood-tonification; Zeng-ye decoction (增液汤) for yin-tonification; Si-shen pill (四神丸) for yang-tonification. Organ-tonifying herbs are: Glycyrrhizae Uralensis Radix Preparata (Zhi-gan-cao炙甘草) and Rehmannia Glutinosa Radix (Di-huang地黄) for heart-tonification; Lycium Barbarum Fructus (Gou-qi-zi枸杞子) and Angelicae Sinensis Radix (Dang-gui当归) for liver-tonification; Panax Ginseng Radix (Ren-shen人参) and Atractylodis Macrocephala Rhizoma (Bai-zhu白术) for spleen/stomach-tonification; Panax Ginseng Radix (Ren-shen人参) and Astragalus Membranaceus Radix (Huang-qi黄芪) for lung-tonification; Cornus Officinalis Fructus (Shan-zhu-yu山茱萸) and Dioscorea Opposite Rhizoma (Shan-yao山药) for kidney-tonification. The corresponding CM formulas are: Zhi-gan-cao decoction (炙甘草汤) for heart-tonification; Yi-guan decoction (一贯煎) for liver-tonification; Shen-ling-bai-zhu powder (参苓白术散) for spleen/stomach-tonification; Bu-fei decoction (补肺汤) for lung-tonification; Liu-wei-di-huang pill (六味地黄丸) for kidney tonification. These herbs and formulas were described regarding their efficacy, reasonable use and unreasonable abuse specific to different patients with different symptoms. The scientific investigation on efficacy and safety of Chinese formulas will propel the acceptance and spread of TCM in the western world for the sake of patients worldwide.
MODERN RESEARCH ON CHINESE MATERIA MEDICA: Evidence based validation of Indian traditional medicine – Way forward
Pulok K Mukherjee, Ranjit K Harwansh, Shiv Bahadur, Subhadip Banerjee, Amit Kar
World Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Year 2016, Volume 2, Issue 1 [p. 48-61]
DOI: 10.15806/j.issn.2311-8571.2015.0018
Evidence based validation of the ethno-pharmacological claims on traditional medicine (TM) is the need of the day for its globalization and reinforcement. Combining the unique features of identifying biomarkers that are highly conserved across species, this can offer an innovative approach to biomarker-driven drug discovery and development. TMs are an integral component of alternative health care systems. India has a rich wealth of TMs and the potential to accept the challenge to meet the global demand for them. Ayurveda, Yoga, Unani, Siddha and Homeopathy (AYUSH) medicine are the major healthcare systems in Indian Traditional Medicine. The plant species mentioned in the ancient texts of these systems may be explored with the modern scientific approaches for better leads in the healthcare. TM is the best sources of chemical diversity for finding new drugs and leads. Authentication and scientific validation of medicinal plant is a fundamental requirement of industry and other organizations dealing with herbal drugs. Quality control (QC) of botanicals, validated processes of manufacturing, customer awareness and post marketing surveillance are the key points, which could ensure the quality, safety and efficacy of TM. For globalization of TM, there is a need for harmonization with respect to its chemical and metabolite profiling, standardization, QC, scientific validation, documentation and regulatory aspects of TM. Therefore, the utmost attention is necessary for the promotion and development of TM through global collaboration and co-ordination by national and international programme.
ACUPUNCTURE AND MOXIBUSTION: The importance of evidence for the integration of traditional and complementary medicine into Wes...
Nicola Robinson
World Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Year 2016, Volume 2, Issue 1 [p. 74-79]
DOI: 10.15806/j.issn.2311-8571.2015.0029
Policy makers should consider improving access to treatments normally considered outside of healthcare in the west, particularly given the recent WHO strategy. However, research on integrating traditional and complementary medicines (T&CM) into conventional health care is lacking. T& CM approaches, may provide a cost effective option given the increase in chronic diseases with evidence of effectiveness of T& CM being key if such approaches are to be offered as part of integrative patient care, in most countries, an integrated healthcare approach is unavailable to patients. Evidence based clinical guidelines on T& CM should influence care provision. However evidence that is available may not even be cited. Poor use of evidence may possibly be a reflection of lack of knowledge and/or biases of guideline developers but additionally stakeholders vary in their perceived need for evidence to implement health policy change. Journal editors should focus on publishing high quality manuscripts, with clear rationales, design and reporting frameworks. Researchers should consider carrying out careful feasibility studies prior to conducting trials taking into account the UK Medical Research Council’s framework on complex interventions. Examples of feasibility studies highlighting their importance for trial design are given in this paper. If preparation for more definitive studies is conducted this will in turn improve the quality of research being designed, executed and published and subsequently encourage the inclusion of evidence by guideline developers. Robust evidence is necessary in order to inform governments’ health policies providing appropriate T&CM interventions which can ultimately help to provide best patient care.
REVIEW ARTICLE: Treatment of visceral pain associated with irritable bowel syndrome using acupuncture: Mechanism ...
Aleksandar Zivaljevic, Bin Shi, Elisa M S. Tam, Vahideh Toossi
World Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Year 2019, Volume 5, Issue 4 [p. 181-186]
DOI: 10.4103/wjtcm.wjtcm_24_19
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a relatively common condition characterized by abdominal pain, among other symptoms, that significantly impacts the quality of life of IBS patients. Therapeutic treatment of IBS results in limited success, and the focus is placed on relieving patients of some of the symptoms, visceral pain in particular. Acupuncture is commonly used as a treatment modality of choice. However, the debate on whether acupuncture can be effectively used for this purpose is ongoing. In this work, we critically review the available literature to establish a potential mechanism of action in treating visceral pain in IBS using acupuncture. The sources used are Google Scholar, EBSCO, Cochrane Library and PubMed as well as Chinese database sources. The keywords used in the literature search are “acupuncture,” “IBS,” “Irritable Bowel Syndrome,” and “visceral pain.” We find that the literature strongly indicates that acupuncture, by stimulating points located on the dermatomes proximal to the spinal level of the area where the sympathetic outflow of the particular gut area affected by the pain is, can interfere with the efferent signal that transports information about the noxious stimuli and interrupt the “connectivity” between the gut and brain, and as a final result, reduce or stop IBS pain. Our findings justify that clinical trials are conducted to test the utility of acupuncture in treating abdominal visceral pain in IBS.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH: Rural recruitment and retention of health workers across cadres and types of contract in north-ea...
Preety R Rajbangshi, Devaki Nambiar, Nandini Choudhury, Krishna D Rao
WHO South-East Asia Journal of Public Health, Year 2017, Volume 6, Issue 2 [p. 51-59]
DOI: 10.4103/2224-3151.213792 PMID: 28857063
Background Like many other low- and middle-income countries, India faces challenges of recruiting and retaining health workers in rural areas. Efforts have been made to address this through contractual appointment of health workers in rural areas. While this has helped to temporarily bridge the gaps in human resources, the overall impact on the experience of rural services across cadres has yet to be understood. This study sought to identify motivations for, and the challenges of, rural recruitment and retention of nurses, doctors and specialists across types of contract in rural and remote areas in India's largely rural north-eastern states of Meghalaya and Nagaland. Methods A qualitative study was undertaken, in which 71 semi-structured interviews were carried out with doctors (n = 32), nurses (n = 28) and specialists (n = 11). In addition, unstructured key informant interviews (n = 11) were undertaken, along with observations at health facilities and review of state policies. Data were analysed using Ritchie and Spencer's framework method and the World Health Organization's 2010 framework of factors affecting decisions to relocate to, stay in or leave rural areas. Results It was found that rural background and community attachment were strongly associated with health workers’ decision to join rural service, regardless of cadre or contract. However, this aspiration was challenged by health-systems factors of poor working and living conditions; low salary and incentives; and lack of professional growth and recognition. Contractual health workers faced unique challenges (lack of pay parity, job insecurity), as did those with permanent positions (irrational postings and political interference). Conclusion This study establishes that the crisis in recruiting and retaining health workers in rural areas will persist until and unless health systems address the core basic requirements of health workers in rural areas, which are related to health-sector policies. Concerted attention and long-term political commitment to overcome system-level barriers and governance may yield sustainable gains in rural recruitment and retention across cadres and contract types.
POLICY AND PRACTICE: Towards elimination of parent-to-child transmission of syphilis in India: a rapid situation revie...
Vani Srinivas, Prasad LN Turlapati, Anil K Bhola, Aman K Singh, Shobini Rajan, Radha S Gupta, Sunil D Khaparde
WHO South-East Asia Journal of Public Health, Year 2015, Volume 4, Issue 2 [p. 197-203]
DOI: 10.4103/2224-3151.206690 PMID: 28607319
In February 2015, India’s National AIDS Control Organisation, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, launched a national strategy towards elimination of parent-to-child transmission (E-PTCT) of syphilis, with a goal to reduce the incidence of congenital syphilis to 0.3 cases per 1000 live births by 2017. As part of the development of the national strategy, a rapid situation analysis was undertaken to ascertain the current practices, challenges and barriers for E-PTCT of syphilis in India. The analysis was conducted during February and March 2014 in five states selected from five different regions of India. Key informant interviews were conducted with key stakeholders at facility, state and district level. Content analysis was used to identify the themes. Key barriers identified for E-PTCT of syphilis were: low priority for antenatal syphilis testing among providers, limited access to testing, untrained human resources, shortage of test kits and benzathine penicillin, nonadherence to the national protocol for syphilis testing, and poor recording and reporting of antenatal syphilis data. The analysis also identified opportunities for functional integration of E-PTCT within existing maternal and child health programmes. Health-care providers and programme managers expressed a need for training in the programme for E-PTCT of syphilis. The situation analysis identified that, for successful implementation of E-PTCT of syphilis, it is essential that state and district programme managers adopt this initiative; coordinate the programme; plan for an adequate budget in their programme implementation plan; ensure an uninterrupted supply of standardized diagnostics kits and drugs at all levels of health care; and adhere to E-PTCT guidelines when implementing the programme.
PERSPECTIVE: Unintended consequences of regulating traditional medicine
Sonya Davey
WHO South-East Asia Journal of Public Health, Year 2013, Volume 2, Issue 3 [p. 131-134]
DOI: 10.4103/2224-3151.206758 PMID: 28615587
The World Health Organization (WHO) has the noble goals of advancing traditional medicine and simultaneously promoting the regulation and professionalization of traditional healers. However, such regulation has the unintended consequence of withholding power from traditional practitioners. This review explores this concept through a historical analysis of traditional medicine in both India and Zimbabwe. During the post-colonial period in both countries, traditional medicine contributed to the creation of national identity. In the process of nationalizing traditional medicine, regulations were set in place that led to a rise in the university-style teaching of traditional healing. This period of professionalization of traditional healers resulted in certain types of traditional medicine being marginalized, as they were neither included in regulation nor taught at university. Since then, the current era of globalization has commoditizedtraditional healing. Private industries like ZEPL and Dabur have rapidly and vastly altered the role of traditional healers. Consumers can now buy traditional medication directly from companies without visiting a healer. Additionally, disputes over patents and other intellectual property rights have led to important questions regarding ownership of certain plants traditionally known for healing properties. Through regulation and commercialization of traditional medicine, healers have lost some of their independence to practise.
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