2014-08-27T13:08:10Z http://www.medknow.com/oai2
oai:medknow.com:86267 2010-07-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Radiochromic dosimeter for nuclear emergency Vaijapurkar, SG Bera, A Chaudhary, HS Hoda, JS Kumar, D Narayan, P The indigenously developed Radiochromic film will provide visual assessment of absorbed radiation dose in cGy range. The film develops a distinctive and characteristic color upon exposure to ionizing radiation. When the active monomer polymer strip is exposed to ionizing radiation, a polymerization reaction immediately produces an intensely colored dye polymer that changes the appearance of the dosimeter. The amount of dye produced is proportional to the radiation dose. The dye polymer is cyan blue with a major absorbance peak at 676-680 nm and a minor peak at 625-630 nm. The developed film indicates progressively darker in proportion to absorbed dose in six different shades i.e. 0cGy, 10cGy, 25cGy, 50cGy, 125cGy and 350cGy. The progressively increase in darkness of same film is also observed by naked eye at 500cGy, 750cGy and 1000cGy.The dose response (10cGy to 1000cGy), dose rate response (10CGy/h- 1200cGy/h), sun light and room light effect on radiochromic film has also been studied. Sun light and room light effect on radiochromic film and color stability has also been studied. It is observed that the dosimeter is unaffected by exposures to sunlight or normal room light if radiation sensitive strip is covered by clear transparent UV protective film. Medknow Publications 2010-07-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2010/33/3/100/86267 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:86271 2010-07-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Monitoring of tritium In CORAL reprocessing facility Sundar, SB Chandrasekaran, S Ajoy, KC Yuvaraj, N Akila, R Santhanam, R Rajagopal, V Gaseous effluent that is discharged through the stack of CORAL reprocessing facility is continuously monitored and the activity release estimated to comply with the regulatory requirements. Krypton-85, Iodine-131 and particulates are monitored and the activity release quantified in this facility. Release of Tritium in the gaseous effluent also needs to be monitored considering it's long half-life and the consequent environmental impact. Moreover, it has also become a regulatory requirement to monitor and quantify Tritium discharge from a reprocessing facility. In view of this, a prototype setup, adopting bubbler method, has been designed, installed and commissioned at CORAL to monitor and quantify the Tritium release during the recently concluded campaign. It was observed that Tritium was released during the chopping and dissolution processes, in measurable quantities. Medknow Publications 2010-07-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2010/33/3/104/86271 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:86272 2010-07-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Assessment of potential inhalation exposure due to radon in uranium mine surface facilities Topno, R Srivastava, VS Patnaik, RL Dandapat, BL Shukla, AK Tripathi, RM Puranik, VD Uranium mining is only one of it's kinds in the mining industry owing to associated inherent radiological hazards. Ore excavation processes may lead to release of radiologically significant materials into the surrounding environment. Such releases may lead to exposure of individuals during the course of operations near the source. The main features of radiological hazard associated in these are <sup>222</sup> Rn and it's progeny, external gamma levels, long lived alpha activity in the natural uranium ore dust. The most significant internal hazards in an underground uranium mines surface facilities arises due to inhalation of short-lived decay products of radon ( <sup>222</sup> Rn), which are daughter products of uranium ( <sup>238</sup> U). The present paper provides an estimate of inhalation dose to radiation workers engaged at the surface facilities in the vicinity of underground mines of Narwapahar. A radon gas monitor AlphaGuard PQ 2000 PRO (Genitron Instruments, Germany) was used for the measurement of outdoor atmospheric <sup>222</sup> Rn concentrations in the vicinity of underground uranium mines surface facilities. Outdoor atmospheric <sup>222</sup> Rn concentrations were found in the range of 10 to 87 Bq.m <sup>-3</sup> with arithmetic mean of 34 Bq.m <sup>-3</sup> . Average annual internal dose due to radon and it's progeny to the workers in these areas have been worked out to 0.17 mSv.y <sup>-1</sup> . Medknow Publications 2010-07-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2010/33/3/106/86272 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:86273 2010-07-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Regulatory aspects in liquid effluent generated during the production of the novel <sup>99m</sup> Tc gel generator system developed at BRIT Choughule, NV Devi, AK Suman, SK Anilkumar, R Patre, DK Murali, S Saraswathy, P Radioactive process liquid waste is generated during production of <sup>99m</sup> Tc gel generator at Radiopharmaceutical Laboratory, BRIT, Vashi. The wastes were transferred to Waste Management Division, BARC, in carbuoys after assessment of activity content, to ensure that the activity limit set by the regulatory authority is complied with. A study was taken up for the optimization of decay time of effluent generated during the production of Tc-Gel generator. Study on the identification of the radio nuclides present in the liquid waste, to plan for disposal is discussed in this paper. Liquid waste aliquots were counted by different techniques and were followed for decay of activity over long duration. The analysis of the samples led to identify the long lived radio nuclides like <sup>60</sup> Co, <sup>134</sup> Cs and <sup>65</sup> Zn in liquid waste generated from <sup>99m</sup> Tc gel generator production facility. Medknow Publications 2010-07-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2010/33/3/109/86273 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:86275 2010-07-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Comparative evaluation of chromatographic resin and the conventional radiochemical separation techniques for <sup>89,90</sup> Sr in milk Mehenderge, ST Sudheendran, V Rao, DD Hegde, AG The use of extraction chromatography resin for the separation of Sr from Ca, Ba and Y in milk powder samples was studied. The effectiveness of chromatographic column in terms of it's repeated use and memory effect has been established. 39 milk powder samples were analyzed for separating Sr isotopes. The average recovery obtained with Sr-Spec resin was 79.4 with standard deviation of 5.6 and with nitrate separation method, the parameters were 68.2 and 9.4 respectively. Sr-Spec resin was found to be better than conventional nitrate method for parameters like radiochemical recovery and precision. Medknow Publications 2010-07-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2010/33/3/112/86275 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:86276 2010-07-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Radiological consequence of rupture of a high level waste storage tank at additional waste tank Farm-Tarapur Mhatre, A Sharma, VK Umadevi, K In this paper, the radiological consequences of a catastrophic rupture of an HLW tank in a sub-vault of the AWTF have been studied. The postulated accident has been analysed assuming two phases, namely the accident phase and the recovery phase. Radiation dose to public through important pathways resulting from this postulated accident has been evaluated. Total effective whole body dose of 0.94 mSv has been estimated. Medknow Publications 2010-07-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2010/33/3/116/86276 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:86277 2010-07-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Assessment of internal exposure due to acute intakes of radioactivity at waste management facilities under special operational monitoring Kumar, R Thakur, S Yadav, JR Rao, DD Chand, L Assessment of internal exposure to the two acute exposure cases at waste management facilities have been carried out by whole body counting (in-vivo) and bio-assay (in-vitro) monitoring technique. These subjects were administered Ca-DTPA aerosol immediately after exposure. The initial whole body counting results showed internal contamination due to <sup>137</sup> Cs. Urinary excretion rate of <sup>239</sup> Pu and <sup>241</sup> Am in these cases are determined by means of standard radiochemical separation and estimation using <sup>236</sup> Pu and <sup>243</sup> Am tracers. The paper deals with the assessment of internal exposure to the radiation workers from waste management facility at Tarapur. It is observed that the assessed CED due to <sup>137</sup> Cs was very low while the actinides namely, <sup>239</sup> Pu and <sup>241</sup> Am, were the main contributors to the total CED. The CED for Case-I and Case-II was estimated as 8.54 mSv and 6.48 mSv respectively. Medknow Publications 2010-07-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2010/33/3/120/86277 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:86278 2010-07-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Development of a laundry monitor for contamination control Singh, VP Managanvi, SS Shah, TN The radiation dose due to contamination can be avoided / minimized as a result of good practices, adherence to Radiation Protection Procedures and controlling by monitoring level of contamination of the personnel, in areas, on equipments and PPEs. Radioactive contamination on the materials, human body or other undesirable places is extremely harmful to the personnel at Nuclear Power Plants. Spread and cross contamination of radioactivity from the controlled areas is a very complicated problem for power reactor plant management. Protective cloths and PPEs used by workers during normal operation and maintenance as well as bieannual outage of the power plant are found contaminated by <sup>60</sup> Co, <sup>90</sup> Sr, <sup>124</sup> Sb and <sup>137</sup> Cs mainly. The contamination control and proper monitoring is a key of radiation protection to avoid superfluous local exposure which may result in local body radiation effects. A economical, simple to use and self contained new developed Laundry Monitor having 12 trays, each containing two energy compensated GM detectors with lead shielding has been installed at Kaiga Generating Station-3&4 with average monitor efficiency 0.23% (for <sup>90</sup> Sr/ <sup>90</sup> Yt plate source), LLD and MDA 7.97 cps and 34.65 Bq respectively. The operational experience of user-friendly Laundry Monitor provided very good results for contamination measurement and useful in controlling the spread of contamination. Medknow Publications 2010-07-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2010/33/3/123/86278 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:86279 2010-07-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Health physics experiences in ued during handling of depleted uranium Belhe, MS Shailesh, M Malti Somanathan, K Satpati, SK This paper describes Health Physics experience during processing of Deeply Depleted Uranium (from PREFRE) at Uranium Metal Plant. It was observed that there is a significant difference in radiological status due to the handling of DDU oxide from Tarapur reprocessing plant. Radiation background during DDU handling was significantly higher as compared to natural uranium processing. Due to <sup>232</sup> U, thoron daughter's concentration in working atmosphere was also observed which was found with in the apportionment provided for DDU handling. Medknow Publications 2010-07-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2010/33/3/128/86279 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:86280 2010-07-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Vehicle tracking based technique for radiation monitoring during nuclear or radiological emergency Saindane, SS Otari, AD Suri, M Patil, SS Pradeepkumar, KS Sharma, DN Real-time dose rate measurements along with the route followed by the radiation monitoring vehicle and the quick analysis of the data are of crucial importance during a nuclear or radiological emergency. To develop a timely response capability in different threat scenarios, such as the release of radioactive materials to the environment during any nuclear or radiological accident, Radiation Safety Systems Division, BARC has developed an advanced online radiation measurement cum vehicle tracking system for use. For the preparedness for response to any nuclear/radiological emergency scenario which may occur anywhere, the system designed is a global system for mobile (GSM) based radiation monitoring system (GRaMS) along with a global positioning system (GPS). It uses an energy compensated GM detector for radiation monitoring and is attached with commercially available GPS for online acquisition of positional coordinates with time, and GSM modem for online data transfer to a remote control centre. The equipment can be operated continuously while the vehicle is moving. The data downloaded and results plotted on GIS map helps in knowing the exact position of the vehicle along with the radiological status in terms of dose rates. This measurement information, either as raw data or results can be stored in the database. The system consumes ~250 mA including the GPS and GSM enabling thirty hours of continuous radioactivity monitoring with a 12 Ah battery source. The system has been used in road based environmental mobile radiation monitoring programme carried out at various parts of the country. With laptop support, the system maps the radiological status online onto the map of the area being surveyed, to help decision-making on countermeasures during the survey to enable the emergency managers to take appropriate decision. Medknow Publications 2010-07-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2010/33/3/131/86280 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:86286 2010-07-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Radiochemical procedure for estimation of sulphur-35 in bioassay samples Raj, SS Sawant, PD Bhati, S Occupational workers from Board of Radiation Isotopes and Technology (BRIT) are engaged in synthesis of various compounds of Sulphur-35 ( <sup>35</sup> S) for application in life sciences. There is a possibility of intake of <sup>35</sup> S by these workers during the course of their work. It is necessary to assess intake and assign internal dose to these workers following an inhalation of <sup>35</sup> S. Estimation of intake of <sup>35</sup> S, which is a pure beta emitter, involves analysis of urine samples collected from workers. The present study illustrates standardization of a radiochemical procedure for estimation of <sup>35</sup> S in bioassay samples of these workers using Liquid Scintillation Spectrometer (LSS). The radiochemical recovery achieved in the present study ranged from 80.4% to 98.8 % with an average of about 91.4 %. The method, standardized, can be adopted for bioassay monitoring of workers handling <sup>35</sup> S labeled compounds. Medknow Publications 2010-07-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2010/33/3/135/86286 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:86287 2010-07-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Standardization of radiochemical procedure for the estimation of protactinium in bioassay samples Prabhu, SP Sawant, PD Bhati, S For occupational workers handling protactinium-231 in nuclear facilities, there is a possibility of internal exposure to the radionuclide. Assessment of internal radiation dose due to intakes of <sup>231</sup> Pa can be made from the activity concentration determined by the analysis of urine samples collected from the occupational workers. A study was initiated to standardize a simple and sensitive radiochemical procedure specific for the separation of Pa in bioassay samples. For this purpose, urine samples collected from members of public were spiked with Pa activity at mBq level. Pa was pre-concentrated on calcium phosphate, separated by ion-exchange technique and estimated using alpha spectrometry. The radiochemical recovery ranged from 90 % to 96 % with an average recovery of 94.1 ± 2.5%. The minimum concentration of <sup>231</sup> Pa that can be analyzed by this method is about 0.3 mBq/L for one day counting time. This study will help in assessing the internal dose to workers handling protactinium. Medknow Publications 2010-07-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2010/33/3/137/86287 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:86288 2010-07-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
A review of the safety aspects of waste tank farm-P3A, Kalpakkam Subramanian, C Sharma, VK Zade, V The radioactive liquid waste generated at PREFRE 3A, Kalpakkam will be transferred to the waste tank farm (WTF-P3A), for interim storage. The WTF vault and tanks are to be constructed fully underground, with only the auxiliary facilities located above ground. This paper presents the results of the shielding assessment carried out. Calculations have also been made for the decay heat source and hydrogen production rate in the waste solutions. It was concluded that, from bulk shielding point of view, the default shield thicknesses were adequate and that the HLW tanks are adequately cooled and vented. Medknow Publications 2010-07-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2010/33/3/140/86288 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:86291 2010-07-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Dose rate reduction using epoxy mixed lead shielding: Experimental and theoretical determination of shielding effectiveness Yadav, R Prasad, SK Babu, KS Hardiya, MR Ullas, OP High background radiation field exists in water treatment area (WTA) of rod cutting building (RCB) in Cirus due to beta, gamma contamination on it's floor. The high contamination on sides of wall and on floor is primarily due to deposition of activity generated during the regeneration of old mixed bed cartridges earlier (before year 1985) and presently due to deposition of contaminants by sump overflowing and wastes generated during maintenance/servicing of circulating pumps. RCB-WTA contribution to collective dose in present situation is up to 30% of the total collective dose of Cirus. Committee formed for developing methods and implementing measures to reduce high radiation background in RCB-WTA suggested tiling of the contaminated floor with prefabricated epoxy mixed lead shots, from ALARA point of view, after considering various options. These slabs of different thickness were tested for shielding effectiveness experimentally by using radiation source and theoretically using a code. Dose reduction factor of ~3.5 for a point source, obtained experimentally for epoxy mixed lead shots was very near to value obtained by theoretical simulation. An extended calculation for an area source using a code gives a higher dose rate reduction factor of ~28. Medknow Publications 2010-07-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2010/33/3/143/86291 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:86293 2010-07-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Recent sedimentation rate at Trombay Naval Jetty of Mumbai Harbour Bay Narayanan, U Karpe, R Joshi, V Verma, PC Hegde, AG A major tool to study rates of sedimentation is <sup>210</sup> Pb dating of sediment cores. In the present study, two core samples of 36cm long and 4.5 cm diameter were collected from Trombay Naval Jetty which is located at ~3 km away from BARC. <sup>210</sup> Pb was estimated in the core fractions by <sup>210</sup> Po which is in secular equilibrium with <sup>210</sup> Pb. <sup>226</sup> Ra in the core fractions were estimated by High resolution 50% RE HP (Ge) Detector. The unsupported <sup>210</sup> Pb was evaluated by subtracting <sup>226</sup> Ra from total <sup>210</sup> Pb in each fraction. The log of unsupported <sup>210</sup> Pb in each fraction was then plotted against depth and the slope of this line was evaluated. The sedimentation rate was obtained by dividing the <sup>210</sup> Pb decay constant by the slope of the log-linear plot of unsupported <sup>210</sup> Pb versus depth. The mean sedimentation rate thus calculated at Trombay Naval Jetty was 1.32 cmy <sup>-1</sup> . Medknow Publications 2010-07-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2010/33/3/147/86293 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:86294 2010-07-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Radioactivity study in Nagapattinam coastal area (Nagapattinam, Velankanni and Karaikal) in Bay of Bengal Hameed, PS Raja, P Satheeshkumar, G A study on the distribution and bioaccumulation of radionuclides has been undertaken in the abiotic and biotic matrices of the Nagapattinam coast (Bay of Bengal). The measurement of ambient gamma radiation levels in the coastal regions showed a rapidly changing non-uniform radiation regime ranging from 6.56 to 24.59 μR/hr. During the survey irregular and discontinuous radiation profile could be observed even in a narrow stretch of coastal area. The gross alpha and beta activities in sediments were indicative of the relative abundance of naturally occurring alpha and beta radionuclides. The mean value of gross alpha activity in the coastal area was 6.0 Bq/kg and gross beta activity in the coastal area was 16.8 Bq/kg. Gross alpha activity was non-uniformly distributed among the stations while beta activity was almost uniformly distributed. Among the several species of fishes taken for the study, Sardinella sp., accumulated higher level of <sup>210</sup> Po in it's muscle (15.7 Bq/kg). The study on the distribution and bioaccumulation of alpha emitting radionuclides such as <sup>210</sup> Po in the Nagapattinam, Velankanni and Karaikal coastal ecosystem, showed that the activity from this radionuclide is well within the safe limits, since there are no anthropogenic nuclear inputs. Medknow Publications 2010-07-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2010/33/3/150/86294 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:86295 2010-07-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
News and Information Pushparaja Medknow Publications 2010-07-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2010/33/3/155/86295 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:86261 2010-07-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Dr AK Ganguly Memorial Oration Parthasarathy, KS Dr. K.S. Parthasarathy is the recepient of IARP-Dr. A.K. Ganguly Memorial Oration Award-2010 This is the text of the Oration delivered at the 29th IARP National Conference (IARPNC-2010) on Recent Advances in Radiation Dosimetry, held during 3-5 February, 2010 at Mumbai. Medknow Publications 2010-07-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2010/33/3/88/86261 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:86264 2010-07-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Bubble detector for neutron and gamma discrimination Vaijapurkar, SG Depending on neutron energy, a number of personnel neutron dosimeters such as NTA film, Albedo TLD dosimeter and Nuclear Track Detectors (CR39) have been developed and reported so far. At present, CR-39 is in use as personnel neutron dosimeters for neutron monitoring of occupational workers in most of the nuclear installations due to non-availability high sensitive real time gamma insensitive personnel neutron dosimeters as per ICRP recommendations. The Superheated Emulsion Detector or bubble detector assess the magnitude of detrimental effects on health of person exposed to neutron radiation in terms of absorbed dose or equivalent dose even in presence of high gamma radiations flux in real time unlike nuclear track detectors. Bubble Technology Industries (BTI), Canada and Aphel Enterprises, USA have commercialized these type of bubble detectors for neutron and gamma measurements. The paper will elaborate the basic principle, special features, mechanism of bubble formation, national and international status including it's applications in accelerator Physics, Medical sciences, nuclear submarine and neutron /gamma dose measurements in nuclear reactors. These detectors may be most popular in due course among health physicists due to it's reusability and precise measurements for neutron measurements in reactor environment, pulse neutron measurements and personal neutron dosimetery. Medknow Publications 2010-07-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2010/33/3/94/86264 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:90447 2010-10-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Concept and computation of radiation dose at high energies Sarkar, PK Radiological safety aspects in general and neutron dosimetry in particular, around medium and high energy particle accelerators pose some unique challenges to the practitioners of radiation protection. At such high energies the concept of dose becomes a complicated issue primarily because of the onset of electromagnetic and hadronic cascades. The role of computational dosimetry in such cases as well as for radiation protection in general is having a growing significance. It is anticipated that the recently developed soft computing techniques will play an important role in radiation protection in the future. Estimation of uncertainty and propagation of errors (both statistical and systematic) assumes a pivotal role in computations and measurements in generating data with confidence. Finally, a discussion on the concept of dose and radiological protection and operational quantities is done along with the recommendation of using Evidence theory in addition to Bayesian probability in assessing radiological risk. Medknow Publications 2010-10-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2010/33/4/160/90447 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:90449 2010-10-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Networked national occupational dose registry system Sanaye, SS Meena, RH Baburajan, S Pawar, SG Sapra, BK Mayya, YS Monitoring of radiation workers and maintaining their dose data is an important part of radiological protection program. As per RPR-71 (and presently RPR-2004), it is a regulatory requirement. National Occupational Dose Registry System (NODRS) at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (B.A.R.C.) is maintaining and updating annual and lifetime dose data of all monitored radiation workers since the inception of Directorate of Radiation Protection in late sixties. The registry has a database of over 4,00,000 radiation workers. Over the years, the registry underwent several structural, software and hardware changes. Recently, it has been upgraded to network all monitoring labs located at NPP sites and other DAE units with the main database server at BARC through NPCNET and ANUNET. The new system provides online information on dose data, previous dose history of radiation worker which is an important requirement for monitoring units. Capability of NODRS to store biometric information of radiation workers enhances the effectiveness of the system. This paper gives the outline of NODRS along with some analysis of the data accumulated over the years. Medknow Publications 2010-10-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2010/33/4/167/90449 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:90451 2010-10-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Monitoring of gamma radiation levels around Kakrapar Atomic Power Station Venkataraman, S Nankar, DP Pradeepkumar, KS Hegde, AG Sarkar, PK By installing a Gamma Tracer (Genitron make) outside of a mobile vehicle, gamma radiation levels around KAPS up to 30 km distance were measured for a period of one year. The hourly averaged gamma radiation levels in all the routes of mobile vehicle in many occasions varied from 56 to 112 nGyh <sup>-1</sup> , with an average of 77 nGyh <sup>-1</sup> . The hourly averaged gamma radiation levels in all TLD stations were also found to be within this range. Since this data is comparable to preoperational data, the impact of operation of KAPS on the environment is negligible. Medknow Publications 2010-10-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2010/33/4/171/90451 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:90454 2010-10-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Radiation exposure profile and dose estimates to flyers Enroute Frankfurt to Mumbai Rao, DD Hegde, AG Cosmic ray produced gamma dose rates recorded by continuous dose logging systems shipped in a commercial flight flying in Frankfurt-Dubai-Mumbai sector are presented. The doses measured, in the 10 hour flight duration, at 10 minute interval were analyzed and a gamma dose rate factor of 1.14 μSv/h of flying was evaluated. The gamma dose rates were in the range of 0.74 to 1.34 μSv/h in the flight path. Medknow Publications 2010-10-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2010/33/4/174/90454 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:90455 2010-10-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Radiation surveillance programme and control of personnel exposure during 2001-2007 at RPhD, RLG Choughule, NV Singh, P Sapkal, JA Murali, S Radioisotopes find innumerable applications in medical, industrial and agricultural applications. Radiopharmaceutical division is engaged in activities to promote peaceful uses of radioisotopes and radiation. In Radiopharmaceutical division production and processing of radio chemicals take place for low activity sealed sources for various applications such as brachytherapy, references sources for calibration, sources for industrial application. These sources are then supplied to end users through BRIT. Radiopharmaceutical division handles significant amount of beta and gamma emitting radioisotopes in solid and in solution form. Board of Isotopes and Radiation Technology (BRIT) has committed supply of these sealed sources to various hospitals and industrial institutions in India. Annually, TBq level of radioisotopes are handled in facilities such as - fume hood, shielded production plant, glove boxes, RLG, BARC. This paper brings out a detailed account on the radiological surveillance provided during the production of these radio chemicals and sources implementing As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA). The decrease in collective dose per activity handled is the outcome of improved operation practices, radiation surveillance and safety compliance carried out at various stages of production. Medknow Publications 2010-10-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2010/33/4/177/90455 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:90457 2010-10-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Shipment of active glove box as solid waste from RMD to transit storage facility Rath, DP Yadav, SA Govalkar, AM Mukherjee, G Murali, S Pillai, M Glove boxes that were used in different operations of FBTR fuel fabrication and other metallographic works were planned for disposal as solid active waste. Out of 11 glove boxes, 3 were sent for disposal and remaining for storage at transit storage facility. Special campaign was taken up for decontamination and disposal to bring down the contamination level to prescribed limit of 4000 Bq/g. Soap solution and EDTA were used as cleaning agents for decontamination of loose contamination and then oil paint for fixing the contamination. Glass panels were replaced in the glove boxes sent for storage. The Health Physics experience gained during the shipment of active glove boxes used in handling Pu could be useful in future. Medknow Publications 2010-10-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2010/33/4/180/90457 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:90459 2010-10-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Simulation study of (Th-U)O <sub>2</sub> fuel pin clad defect Mishra, SG Singh, AK Rath, DP Gopalakrishnan, RK Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) is being developed in India with the aim of utilizing the vast reserve of thorium as fertile fuel and power production. The AHWR is based on (Th-U)O <sub>2</sub> and (Th-Pu)O <sub>2</sub> fuel and hence studies related to various aspects of reactor operation using thorium is required as a part of development and generation of data on thorium fuel cycle. In this experimental study, an attempt is made to simulate a fuel Clad failure with (Th- <sup>233</sup> U)O <sub>2</sub> fuel pellets. The pellets of 91% T.D. with 0.1w% <sup>233</sup> UO <sub>2</sub> were prepared by conventional dry powder metallurgy of cold compaction and were contained in a 0.3mm thick Al capsule. A pin hole 1.76 mm <sup>2</sup> dia. was drilled on clad to simulate small size clad defect. The pellets immersed in demineralised water were irradiated in a reactor for a known period. The isotopic activity analysis of radionuclides released in the water was done by γ-ray spectrometry. The release of Ac <sup>228</sup> in the water indicates the presence of thorium decay products such as Bi <sup>212</sup> , Tl <sup>208</sup> during fuel failures. This would warrant adequate shielding on the primary heat transport system piping in case of MOX fuelled reactors using thorium. Medknow Publications 2010-10-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2010/33/4/183/90459 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:90461 2010-10-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Use of specific resins to minimise release of activity at ETP, Trombay Yadav, MB Singh, BN Rao, S Badhwar, RK Johnson, G Kumar, S Raj, K Selective sorbent resins have been developed and are being used extensively for decontamination of radioactive effluents received from reactor at CWMF, Kalpakkam. These materials were evaluated for their suitability in treatment of effluents generated at ETP Trombay to minimise release of activity to the environment. An ion exchange column of capacity 80 litre was fabricated and filled with Copper ferrocyanide (CFC) and Hydrous manganese dioxide (HMO) supported on polyurethane foam. The former is selective for Cesium and the later for strontium. The feed effluent gross βγ activity was in the range of 10-15 Bq/ml. About 130 m <sup>3</sup> (1550 Bed Volume) of effluent was treated resulting a Decontamination Factor (DF) of about 7-9. This has demonstrated the effectiveness of specific resins for treatment of low level radioactive liquid effluents. It is desired to introduce prefiltration systems to enhance the life of the resin. Medknow Publications 2010-10-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2010/33/4/185/90461 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:90462 2010-10-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Radiological surveillance in a developing uranium mines at Bagjata, Jharkhand, India Meena, JS Kumar, R Patnaik, RL Jha, VN Shukla, AK Tripathi, RM Current paper summaries the results of measurement of radon and gamma level inside the developing mine of Bagjata, The maximum radon level was observed to be 0.93 kBq m <sup>-3</sup> EER which is lower as compared to the recommended DAC of 1 kBqm <sup>-3</sup> EER. In most of the measurements, the <sup>222</sup> Rn concentration was lower as compared to the Derived Air Concentration of 1 kBq m <sup>-3</sup> EER. Maximum gamma level (5.01 μGy h <sup>-1</sup> ) was observed near the exposed ore of the mines. The results presented here will form a basis in improving the design to enhance the effectiveness of engineering control measures during operational phases. Medknow Publications 2010-10-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2010/33/4/189/90462 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:90464 2010-10-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Dose mapping of FIPLY food irradiator Ojha, S Bairwa, SM Suman, SK Ram, AK Yadav, RK Murali, S The <sup>60</sup> Co source is used in the FIPLY irradiator. The source is stored under water and the water pool acts as the shield and is useful for the removal of the decay heat. The radiation field measurement on the water pool area was desired to be carried out for different depths of water and during the source held in the exposed state, gamma dose mapping in the irradiator room with distance from the source rack. The paper describes the radiation field prevailing at various depths of water pool with source under water and gamma dose with distance in the irradiator room during the sources held in the exposed state. Medknow Publications 2010-10-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2010/33/4/192/90464 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:90466 2010-10-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Effect of caffeine on radiation induced micronuclei in human lymphocytes Shukla, S Anjaria, KB Bhat, NN Shirsath, K Sreedevi, B Present study reports the effect of caffeine on <sup>60</sup> Co gamma radiation induced micronuclei in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Lymphocytes were pre-treated with 0.1-10μM caffeine for 1h at 37°C and exposed to 2 and 4 Gy of radiation before culturing for 72h. In another set of experiments, lymphocytes were exposed to 2 and 4 Gy of radiation and subsequently cultured in the presence of caffeine. Caffeine pre-treatment significantly reduced radiation induced micronuclei (MN) in a concentration dependent manner. In contrast, post-irradiation treatment with caffeine significantly potentiated radiation induced MN in a concentration dependent manner. Medknow Publications 2010-10-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2010/33/4/195/90466 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:90467 2010-10-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Effect of tumour promoter iodoacetate on γ-radiation induced chromosomal aberrations in human lymphocytes Anjaria, KB Shirsath, KB Bhat, NN Sreedevi, B Iodoacetate (IA) is a known tumour promoter of moderate potency. Present study reports the effect of IA post-treatment on <sup>60</sup> Co gamma radiation induced chromosomal aberrations in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Cells were exposed to 2 or 4 Gy of radiation and were cultured in the presence of 0.25-2.5 μg/ml IA. It was observed that IA reduced radiation induced dicentrics yield significantly at both the radiation doses. Medknow Publications 2010-10-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2010/33/4/199/90467 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:90469 2010-10-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Estimation of thorium lung burden in mineral separation plant workers by Thoron-in-breath measurements Radhakrishnan, S Sreekumar, K Selvan, E Tripathi, RM Puranik, VD The Mineral Separation Plant (MSP) of M/s Indian Rare Earths Ltd at Manavalakurichi in Tamil Nadu is engaged in the processing of beach sands to separate ilmenite, monazite, rutile, sillimanite, garnet and zircon. The mining and mineral separation of these sands involves occupational radiation exposure. Inhalation of airborne particulates of monazite is the major route of internal exposure. Thoron - in - breath measurements are carried out on the workers of the plant. From this, the Th lung burden is calculated assuming 9% exhalation of thoron generated in the lung. Th burdens for workers from different operations of the plant range from 8.5Bq to 95Bq. This corresponds to less than 15% of Annual Limit for Intake (ALI) for thorium. The data validates the control measures adopted in the plant to keep the exposures As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA). Medknow Publications 2010-10-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2010/33/4/202/90469 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:90471 2010-10-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Environmental radiation mapping of KAPS emergency planning zone using mobile monitoring techniques Patil, SS Saindane, SS Jose, R Venkatraman, S Pradeepkumar, KS The operation of Nuclear Power Plants results in generation of low level effluents, which are released in a controlled manner out of which atmospheric releases are carried out through the stack to reduce the radiation dose rate on ground by dispersion. In order to assess the radiological impact of routine and accidental releases from a nuclear installation, it is necessary to know the concentration of radionuclides and dose rate profile in the environment, which helps in the implementation of early countermeasures during a radiation emergency. The mobile radiation monitoring technique using various systems/radiation monitors installed on a mobile monitoring vehicle helps in quick assessment during any emergency. This methodology was tested on mobile platform at KAPS and it's surroundings by installing various state of the art systems like GRaMS, CARMS, AGSS, Gamma Tracer etc. which is discussed in this paper. The detailed radiation monitoring carried out in the Emergency Planning Zone of KAPS showed the radiation level in the range of 50-60 nGy.h <sup>-1</sup>. Medknow Publications 2010-10-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2010/33/4/205/90471 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:90473 2010-10-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Optimization of occupational dose in thorium nitrate processing Sagar, DV Tripathy, SK Tripathi, RM Puranik, VD Choudhury, LK Thorium plant at, IREL OSCOM produces thorium nitrate (mantle grade) from thorium concentrate/thorium oxalate obtained from the Rare Earths plant at Udyogamandal. The process involves external and internal exposure of workers due to the handling of radioactive material. Scientific management, involving safe handling of radioactive material and process modifications has been responsible to optimize the occupational exposures to low levels. The paper describes the various safety measures and process modifications that resulted in the per capita dose reduction, from 10.4 mSv to 3.6 mSv, during the last one decade. Medknow Publications 2010-10-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2010/33/4/209/90473 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:90475 2010-10-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Control of internal exposure during event in glove box releasing of α - activity Yadav, S Gavalkar, A Mukherjee, G Gavankar, A Rath, DP Sawant, P Murali, S Facilities handling large amounts of α-emitters viz., isotopes of Pu and other actinides, make use of containment systems viz., Glove Boxes with leak tightness that have very low leak rates. During normal operations, the internal hazard to the lab personnel is practically negligible. However, some operations/events in the glove boxes may lead to loss of integrity of the containment. This could result in release of airborne α - activity inside the glove box into the working environment. Depending on the release of α - activity, the internal hazard may be significant. The assessment of intake and the estimate of CED in suspected cases are carried out. The paper describes the assessment of lab air activity, personnel contamination, intake and internal exposure during an event in glove box that had resulted in release of α-activity. The intake of the S - Class of Pu compound was followed up and the administration of chelating agent to the person was found to have resulted in the reduction of CED to the individual. Medknow Publications 2010-10-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2010/33/4/211/90475 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:90477 2010-10-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Assessment of <sup>241</sup> Am embedded in tissue using Phoswich and an array of HPGe detectors Nadar, MY Singh, IS Bhati, S Assessment of internal contamination of lung/skeleton/liver is required on a routine basis for occupational workers in fuel fabrication and reprocessing plants handling actinides. Assessment of lung/organ burden of actinides is carried out inside the totally shielded steel room whole body counter using Phoswich and array of HPGe detector. This paper describes studies carried out for calibration of the two detection systems for <sup>241</sup> Am source embedded at different depths in tissue equivalent perspex slabs. The calibration factors thus derived will be helpful in the estimation of embedded activity in the tissues of the radiation workers in cases of internal contamination due to wound in the workers handling actinides. Medknow Publications 2010-10-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2010/33/4/213/90477 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:90478 2010-10-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Gamma dose mapping at D <sub>2</sub> O heat exchanger room, valve room-dhruva reactor using EPR dosimetry Sapkal, JA Rath, DP Thanamani, S Rajeshwari, B Mohanan, TK Sorate, P Prasad, S Murali, S Kadam, RM EPR dosimetry finds application in gamma dose measurements whenever the dose range is above Gy level. Suitable matrices are used as cumulative dosimeters. The present study describes the dose mapping of D <sub>2</sub> O heat exchanger room and Valve room of Dhruva reactor, while the EPR dosimetry was used with Alanine and Lithium Carbonate as the dosimeters for cumulative gamma dose measurements. The samples in duplicate, were irradiated for two different irradiation time intervals. Results of the two sets of irradiations for 600 hours (~25 days) and 1200 hours (~50 days) of gamma irradiation and their dosimetric signal readings, found to agree within ±5%, are presented. Medknow Publications 2010-10-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2010/33/4/216/90478 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:90479 2010-10-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Conceptual design for comprehensive automation in radiochemical analysis of bioassay samples Sawant, PD Prabhu, SP Raj, SS Bhati, S Sarkar, PK Kushwaha, HS Rajendran, S Dey, C Das, AP Shiwalkar, V Singh, M Bioassay Laboratory of Health Physics Division is entrusted with the task of carrying out the bioassay monitoring of occupational workers from various plants / divisions of BARC e.g. FRD, FCD, RCD, WMD, UED etc. for various radionuclides like Pu, U, Th, <sup>90</sup> Sr, <sup>3</sup> H etc. On the average, about 1400-1500 analyses are performed on 700-800 urine samples collected annually from radiation workers. The number of samples has increased in the recent years and is expected to increase further. Hence, it is planned to carry out automation in various stages of sample handling and processing to cope up with the expected increase in workload. The present paper describes the conceptual design for fabrication of comprehensive automated system for radiochemical analysis of bioassay samples. Medknow Publications 2010-10-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2010/33/4/219/90479 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:90480 2010-10-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
News and Information Medknow Publications 2010-10-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2010/33/4/222/90480 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:93898 2011-01-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
NDMA guidelines on management of nuclear and radiological emergencies Abani, MC The National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA), ever since it's formation as an apex policy making body for the country in the field of disaster management, has formulated a set of guidelines to assist the various ministries, states and stakeholders in preparing their plans to handle different types of disasters. The guidelines on management of nuclear and radiological emergencies assume great importance in the present context, as our country has very ambitious programme to exploit nuclear energy for peaceful uses. Though, we have an enviable and impeccable record of safety and virtually fail-safe operations in all our nuclear establishments, the possibility, however, remote it may be, of human error, systems failure, sabotage, earthquake, floods, terrorist attacks etc leading to the release of radioactive material in the public domain, cannot be entirely ruled out. With this view, it was decided to prepare the national guidelines by NDMA to manage any nuclear/radiological emergency in public domain. Through these guidelines, we aim to further strengthen our existing nuclear/radiological emergency management framework and generate public awareness, which will go a long way in allaying misapprehensions, if any, amongst the public about the country's nuclear programme. Like in all our guidelines for handling of different types of the disasters, in these Guidelines also, maximum emphasis has been laid on the prevention of nuclear and radiological emergencies, along with a detailed consideration of all other elements of the disaster management continuum. The National guidelines have been prepared and a consensus was arrived on various issues, after wide-spread consultations and elaborates discussions amongst experts as well as stakeholders. It is assumed that once these guidelines are implemented by the stakeholders and converted into action plans followed by SOPs that will further reduce the chances of accidents in the nuclear arena. Medknow Publications 2011-01-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2011/34/1/17/93898 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:93899 2011-01-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Adequacy of annealing duration in reducing the background counts of personnel monitoring TLD cards: A study Srivastava, K Varadharajan, G Punekar, MP Ayappan, P Chougaonkar, MP A case study was undertaken to resolve the problem of high background counts of annealed TLD cards at one of the TLD Laboratory observed during handling the over exposure report (OER) received from various accredited laboratories for Non-DAE institutions. In order to verify the appropriateness of annealing procedures adopted by the Laboratory, a detailed study was conducted using four sets of cards exposed to various dose levels. It was found that inadequate annealing time than the standardized protocol duration of 4h at 230°C leads to larger standard deviation and enhanced background, which may slowly build up with repeated use and result in rejection of the dosimeter from field use. Hence it is recommended that annealing procedure of TLD cards must be strictly followed as per standardized protocol. Medknow Publications 2011-01-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2011/34/1/23/93899 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:93900 2011-01-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Biokinetic studies of strontium for Indian adult population using the data on its daily intake and serum content Nair, S Bhati, S The daily dietary intake of strontium and it's content in blood serum for Indian adult population were estimated experimentally by measuring the concentration of stable Sr in total cooked diet and blood serum samples using radiochemical neutron activation analysis technique (RNAA). This paper reports some preliminary results obtained in the estimation of gut absorption factor (f <sub>1</sub> ) values of Sr in Indian adult population using data on it's daily dietary intake and blood serum content. The estimated f <sub>1</sub> values of Sr in Indian adult population were compared with the reported ICRP values. Medknow Publications 2011-01-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2011/34/1/26/93900 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:93935 2011-01-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Low temperature TL studies on indigenously developed and commercial α-AL <sub>2</sub> O <sub>3</sub> :C Soni, A Mishra, DR Kulkarni, MS Muthe, KP Gupta, SK Sharma, DN Commercially available and indigenously developed single crystal α-Al <sub>2</sub> O <sub>3</sub> :C (using Post growth Thermal Impurification (PGTI) technique), were studied for their thermoluminescence (TL) response in the temperature range from -100 <sup>o</sup> C to 60 <sup>o</sup> C. Both types of samples were found to possess similar pattern of TL peaks. In PGTI samples, a dominant TL peak occurred at 8 <sup>o</sup> C and commercial reference samples showed an intense TL peak at 12.5 <sup>o</sup> C. The results indicate that the nature of shallow traps formed using PGTI method is qualitatively analogous to those created by conventional method of growing single crystal α-Al <sub>2</sub> O <sub>3</sub> :C in vacuum in graphite ambience. The low temperature TL peaks are found to respond to blue light optical stimulation as well and therefore may play a crucial role in real time OSL radiation dosimetry in the regime of low temperature ambient conditions, especially with improved detection threshold. Medknow Publications 2011-01-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2011/34/1/29/93935 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:93937 2011-01-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Thermoluminescence studies of copper and indium doped Li <sub>2</sub> B <sub>4</sub> O <sub>7</sub> single crystals Rawat, NS Kulkarni, MS Desai, DG Tiwari, B Ratna, P Gadkari, SC Highly transparent single crystals of Li <sub>2</sub> B <sub>4</sub> O <sub>7</sub> i.e. lithium tetraborate (LTB) doped with Cu (0.25 wt. %) and Cu & In (0.5 wt. % each) were grown by the Czochralski method. The Li <sub>2</sub> B <sub>4</sub> O <sub>7</sub> : Cu and Li <sub>2</sub> B <sub>4</sub> O <sub>7</sub> :Cu, In crystals were studied using thermoluminescence (TL) technique. The TL readout of Li <sub>2</sub> B <sub>4</sub> O <sub>7</sub> :Cu crystals showed two well-defined glow peaks at 130 <sup>o</sup> C and 235 <sup>o</sup> C for heating rate of 4K/s, whereas in LTB:Cu, In another shoulder peak on low temperature side of the main peak is seen. The TL sensitivities of LTB:Cu and LTB:Cu, In were found to be 3.3 and 6 times to that of TLD-100 respectively. Both the LTB:Cu and LTB:Cu, In crystals exhibit a linear TL dose response in the dose range from 1 mGy to 1 kGy. The single crystal of Li <sub>2</sub> B <sub>4</sub> O <sub>7</sub> : Cu,In could become a potential TL phosphor for medical and clinical dosimetry owing to its very good sensitivity and excellent tissue equivalence. Medknow Publications 2011-01-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2011/34/1/32/93937 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:93941 2011-01-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Development of doped fused quartz for radiation dosimetry Barve, R Patil, RR Gaikwad, NP Bhatt, BC Moharil, SV Kulkarni, MS Cu <sup>+</sup> was doped in fused quartz using simple technique and the OSL and TL was studied. The doped quartz shows enhanced TL as well as OSL sensitivity. Its OSL sensitivity is 0.33 of Al <sub>2</sub> O <sub>3</sub> : C (Landauer Inc., USA) with blue light (470 nm) stimulation. Since natural quartz is being used for archaeological dating due to its good retentivity of the stored signal, doped fused quartz will be a promising phosphor for its use in radiation dosimetry using OSL technique. Medknow Publications 2011-01-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2011/34/1/34/93941 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:93943 2011-01-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Indigenous development and networking of online radon monitors in the underground uranium mine Gaware, JJ Sahoo, BK Sapra, BK Mayya, YS There has been a long standing demand for online monitoring of radon level in various locations of underground Uranium mine for taking care of radiological protection to workers. Nowadays, radon ( <sup>222</sup> Rn) monitors, based on electrostatic collection of charged progeny and subsequent detection by semiconductor detector are increasingly employed for radon monitoring in environment. However, such instruments have some limitations such as (i) requirement of additional dryer since sensitivity is dependent on the humidity, (ii) cannot be connected to a network and (iii) not cost effective etc. Hence use of such instruments in underground uranium mine (humidity level >90), may not be reliable. Towards this end, we have indigenously developed radon monitor based on electrostatic collection and scintillation technology for the online monitoring in uranium mine. This instrument overcomes the above mentioned limitation of commercial radon monitors and based on custom made features. Different tests and measurements were carried out and compared with commercial instruments. It was found to be in an excellent agreement with the commercial instruments. A few such instruments have been installed in different locations of uranium mine at Turamdih and connected to a network system for online monitoring and display. Medknow Publications 2011-01-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2011/34/1/37/93943 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:93896 2011-01-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Novel fluorescent nuclear track detectors for use in neutron and heavy charged particle dosimetry Bhatt, BC Medknow Publications 2011-01-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2011/34/1/4/93896 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:93947 2011-01-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Development of a plastic scintillator based large area ground surface contamination monitor Kumar, PA Raman, A Babu, D Sharma, DN This paper presents the features of a recently developed ground surface contamination monitor based on wide area plastic scintillation detector and investigates the design and performance characteristics of the system. The system incorporates an innovative methodology for suppressing the general background radiation influence on the detector response. The methodology involves the incorporation of a suitably positioned gamma sensitive Geiger Muller tube, the output of which is used to compensate for the general background interference in the response from the plastic scintillation detector. This paper reports on the performance evaluation of the system and the parameters considered for setting the alarm levels. Medknow Publications 2011-01-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2011/34/1/41/93947 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:93949 2011-01-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Response of CR-39 based personnel neutron dosemeter in terms of directional dose equivalent, in free air and on phantom Pal, RR Sathian, D Jayalakshmi, V Chougaonkar, MP CR-39 is the most sensitive of nuclear track detectors for protons and is recommended as an effective neutron dosimeter because of it's low threshold energy of 100 keV neutrons. The fraction of protons that gives detectable tracks in CR-39 depends on the energy of the proton angle of incidence and etching conditions. As a consequence the registration efficiency of neutrons in the CR-39 plastics used for neutron personnel monitoring is strongly influenced by the direction of radiation incidence. This paper presents the relative response of CR-39 at varying neutron incident angles, for <sup>241</sup> Am-Be neutron source spectra in free air and on ISO phantom, in terms of operational quantities. It is observed that the angular dependence of CR-39 for irradiations in air and on phantom is essentially the same indicating that the phantom does not affect the directional response of CR-39. Medknow Publications 2011-01-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2011/34/1/44/93949 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:93950 2011-01-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Requirement of trained first responders and national level preparedness for prevention and response to radiological terrorism Sharma, R Pradeepkumar, KS The increase in the usage of radioactive sources in various fields and the present scenario of adopting various means of terrorism indicates a possible environment for malicious usage of radioactive sources. Many nations, India inclusive, have to strengthen further it's capability to deal with Nuclear/Radiological Emergencies. The probable radiological Emergency scenario in public domain involves inadvertent melting of radioactive material, transport accident involving radioactive material/sources and presence of orphan sources as reported elsewhere. Explosion of Radiological Dispersal Device (RDDs) or Improvised Nuclear Devices (IND) leading to spread of radioactive contamination in public places have been identified by IAEA as probable radiological threats. The IAEA documents put lot of emphasis, at national level, on training and educational issues related with Radiological Emergencies. The agencies and institutions dealing with radioactive sources have few personnel trained in radiation protection. Experience so far indicates that public awareness is also not adequate in the field of radiological safety which may create difficulties during emergency response in public domain. The major challenges are associated with mitigation, monitoring methodology, contaminated and overexposed casualties, decontamination and media briefing. In this paper, we have identified the educational needs for response to radiological emergency in India with major thrust on training. The paper has also enumerated the available educational and training infrastructure, the human resources, as well as the important stakeholders for development of sustainable education and training programme. Medknow Publications 2011-01-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2011/34/1/47/93950 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:93955 2011-01-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Measurements of radon concentrations in ground water samples of tectonically active areas of Himachal Pradesh, North West Himalayas, India Arora, V Bajwa, BS Singh, S The paper discusses the result of systematic measurement of activity concentration of radon in ground water samples of seismically active areas of N-W Himalayas, Himachal Pradesh, India. Himalayan region is being subjected to intense neotectonic movements and seismic activities. For systematic study, the study area has been divided into three Zones on the basis of lithology and thrust systems of the area viz. Zone-I, Zone-II and Zone-III. Water radon concentrations were measured using RAD-7 equipped with an appropriate unit (Aqua kit) following a protocol proposed by the manufacturer. Water samples have been collected from the different sources and wide range of the villages from the Zone-I, II and III respectively. The radon concentration in water samples collected from Zone-I has been found to be varying from 8.4Bq/l to 314Bq/l with average value 61.2 Bq/l. The radon concentration in water samples collected from Zone-II has been found to be varying from 14.4Bq/l to 140Bq/l with average value 50.8 Bq/l. The radon concentration in water samples collected from Zone-III has been found to be varying from 9.3Bq/l to 77.8Bq/l with average value 23.2 Bq/l. Medknow Publications 2011-01-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2011/34/1/50/93955 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:93956 2011-01-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Natural radioactivity levels in some environmental samples of Shahpur Region of North Karnataka, India Kerur, BR Rajeshwari, T Nagabhushana, NM Anilkumar, S Narayani, K Rekha, AK Hanumaiah, B The natural radioactivity due to Radium, Thorium and Potassium in environmental samples such as soil and building materials contributes to the radiation dose received by human beings significantly. For assessing the environmental radiological impact to public it is essential to evaluate the activity levels of these nuclides. Using high-resolution Gamma ray spectrometry system the soil and few building material samples viz., granite, sand, brick collected from Shahpur region of North Karnataka were analysed and the radioactivity levels were estimated. The absorbed dose rate due to natural radionuclides was also calculated and the results are reported in this paper. The results obtained were observed to be normal in comparison with the World literature values for almost all samples whereas granite samples showed relatively higher activity and hence higher dose. This study provides a baseline data of radioactivity background levels in the Shahpur region of Gulbarga district and will be useful to assess any changes in the radioactive background level due to various man made processes. Medknow Publications 2011-01-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2011/34/1/55/93956 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:93897 2011-01-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Thermoluminescence, optically stimulated luminescence and radiophotoluminescence dosimetry: An overall perspective Bhatt, BC Radiation dosimetric methods are used for the estimation of dose absorbed by radiation in a detector material. These methods are required for estimation of absorbed dose in various applications of radiation, such as personnel and environmental dosimetry, retrospective/ accident dosimetry and medical applications of radiation. The use of thermoluminescence (TL) as a method for radiation dosimetry of ionizing radiation has been established for many decades and has found many useful applications in various fields, such as personnel and environmental monitoring, medical dosimetry, archaeological and geological dating, space dosimetry. Several high sensitivity TL phosphor materials and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) are now commercially available in different physical forms. There are many commercial TLD systems which are being used for various dosimetric applications and even presently, TL is a major player in the field of radiation dosimetry, particularly in personnel dosimetry. In the last two decades an alternative technique, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL), has been developed, as the optical nature of the readout process does not involve problems of blackbody radiation and thermal quenching. Due to this and some other advantages OSL is also being used for various applications in radiation dosimetry, such as personnel and environmental dosimetry, retrospective/ accident dosimetry and medical dosimetry. The development of Al <sub>2</sub> O <sub>3</sub> :C TL/OSL phosphor by Akselrod et al. and later investigation of its suitability for personnel dosimetry using pulsed OSL (POSL) technique of stimulation by Akselrod and McKeever, resulted in the development of a personnel dosimetry system based on Al <sub>2</sub> O <sub>3</sub> :C OSL phosphor. Therefore, thrust of modern luminescence dosimetry development is more towards OSL. The main advantages of the small size optic fiber based OSL dosimeter over the currently available radiation detectors, such as TLD, used in clinical applications, are the capabilities of measuring both real-time dose rate (using radioluminescence, RL) and absorbed dose (using OSL). Although radiophotoluminscence (RPL) dosimeters were developed in parallel with TLD systems during 1960s, but high pre-dose and photon energy dependent detector material prevented major breakthrough of the glass dosimetry. Therefore, RPL glass dosimeters were used as an emergency dosimeter in accident situations. However, in mid 1980s introduction readout systems using a pulsed UV stimulation, in place of conventional mercury UV lamps, helped in reducing pre-dose by a factor of 100 (from mSv to a few μSv). Use of pulsed stimulation permits electronic discrimination of the signals from the pre-dose and absorbed dose on account of their different fluorescence decay times. This development resulted in the manufacture of improved RPL glass dosimeters and fully automatic RPL reader systems capable of measuring doses in the range 10μSv to 10Sv. In 2001, silver activated phosphate RPL glass dosimetry system has been introduced as the major personnel monitoring service in Japan marketed by Chiyoda Technol Corporation. Some of these developments in the field of TL, OSL and RPL dosimetry are reviewed. Medknow Publications 2011-01-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2011/34/1/6/93897 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:93957 2011-01-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Studies on the ground level wind distribution at Kaiga site using ultrasonic anemometer Hegde, MN Vishnu, MS Ravi, PM Nayak, PD Hegde, AG This paper presents the results of estimation of ground level (10m) wind pattern at Kaiga site using ultra sonic anemometer for month of September. The study generated wind data at ground level for the month of September 2009. More than 70% of the wind is in a speed group less than 0.8m.s <sup>-1</sup> , except during 12-18 h, and hence, cannot be measured by conventional anemometer or SODAR system. Present data clearly indicate that during September month, wind direction pattern observed at 10 m height at Kaiga site measured using Ultra sonic anemometer is comparable with that observed at higher sites using conventional wind monitoring system. This data will be extremely useful for understanding lower wind speed distribution which may not be possible to be measured with conventional wind measurement systems. This data will be extremely useful for understanding the pattern of environmental distribution of atmospherically released radionuclides especially, that of tritium, through forest canopy surrounding the site. Medknow Publications 2011-01-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2011/34/1/60/93957 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:93958 2011-01-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
<sup>137</sup>C s concentration in soil and transfer factors for different matrices around narora atomic power station Kumar, A Gautam, YP Sharma, S Rao, KS Sharma, AK Hegde, AG This paper presents the results of <sup>137</sup> Cs content in soil samples around Narora Atomic Power Station using gamma spectrometric system. The transfer factors (TF) of different terrestrial matrices are also evaluated. It is observed that the range of <sup>137</sup> Cs content in Narora soil is 0.35 Bq/kg to 6.8 Bq/kg with an average value of 4.2 Bq/kg dry weight which is slightly higher than the literature value of different parts of country. The TF for different matrices are also been evaluated which show that the mean TF for fruit and vegetable is 1.62E-02 and 3.1E-02 respectively while highest TF amongst dietary items has been found to be in crop that is 4.49E-02. Medknow Publications 2011-01-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2011/34/1/63/93958 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:93959 2011-01-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Measurement of some radiologically and nutritionally important trace elements in human milk and commercially available milk Nair, S Sathyapriya, RS Nair, MG Ravi, P Bhati, S Milk is considered to be a complete food and an almost indispensable part of the diets of infants and children. In this paper we present the concentration of some radiologically and nutritionally important trace elements such as Th, Cs, Co, Rb, Fe, Ca and Zn present in human milk and commercially available milk. The trace elements in human and other milk samples were determined using instrumental neutron activation analysis technique. The results show that higher concentrations of Th, Cs, Ca and Rb were found in ordinary milk samples in comparison with the human milk samples. Whereas, a higher concentrations of Fe and Co were observed in human milk samples. These data will be useful for the nutritional and biokinetic studies of these elements in infants and children of different age groups. Medknow Publications 2011-01-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2011/34/1/66/93959 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:93961 2011-01-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Automatic readout system for superheated emulsion based neutron detector Meena, JP Parihar, A Vaijapurkar, SG Mohan, A The paper presents a microcontroller based automatic reader system for neutron measurement using indigenously developed superheated emulsion detector. The system is designed for real time counting of bubbles formed in superheated emulsion detector. A piezoelectric transducer is used for sensing bubble acoustic during the nucleation. The front end of system is mainly consisting of specially designed signal conditioning unit, piezoelectric transducer, an amplifier, a high-pass filter, a differentiator, a comparator and monostable multivibrator. The system is based on PIC 18F6520 microcontroller having large internal SRAM, 10-bit internal ADC, I <sup>2</sup> C interface, UART/USART modules. The paper also describes the design of following microcontroller peripheral units viz temperature monitoring, battery monitoring, LCD display, keypad and a serial communication. The reader system measures and displays neutron dose and dose rate, number of bubble and elapsed time. The developed system can be used for detecting very low neutron leakage in the accelerators, nuclear reactors and nuclear submarines. The important features of system are compact, light weight, cost effective and high neutron sensitivity. The prototype was tested and evaluated by exposing to <sup>241</sup> Am-Be neutron source and results have been reported. Medknow Publications 2011-01-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2011/34/1/69/93961 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:93964 2011-01-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Application of fission track technique in solution media for analysis of uranium in bioassay samples Sawant, PD Prabhu, SP Kalsi, PC Bioassay monitoring of occupational workers handling uranium (U) is done by analyzing either overnight or 24 h urine samples. U content in these samples is determined by ion exchange technique followed by alpha spectrometry which has Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA) of about 40 ng for 1 d counting time. The need is to detect daily urinary excretion of 21 ng in case of Type S U(nat.) compounds, so as to record Committed Effective Dose (CED) corresponding to 1 mSv. Fission track analysis (FTA) technique in solution media was therefore standardized using Pnuematic Carrier Facility (PCF) of Dhruva reactor for estimation of low levels U in bioassay samples. Medknow Publications 2011-01-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2011/34/1/74/93964 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:93969 2011-01-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Threshold limit values and their applicability in the realms of chemical exposure control Soundararajan, S Chemicals are useful and indispensable in every walk of our life. Nuclear industry is no exception to this fact. A number of chemicals are in use in the nuclear fuel cycle. Thus, hazards due to exposure to chemicals coexist with radiological hazards in a nuclear fuel cycle industrial or research set-up. In the realms of control of chemical exposure, limits on concentration of chemicals in workplace are prescribed. These are known as occupational exposure limits. Threshold Limit Value (TLV) is one such occupational exposure limit. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) prescribes TLVs as guideline values for various chemicals and also for physical agents. The discussion is confined to philosophy of chemical TLV, its applicability, and its limitations. Medknow Publications 2011-01-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2011/34/1/77/93969 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:93971 2011-01-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
A Tribute to Dr. P. K. Iyengar Iyer, MR Medknow Publications 2011-01-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2011/34/1/81/93971 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:93975 2011-01-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
News and Information Bhatt, BC Medknow Publications 2011-01-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2011/34/1/82/93975 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:98395 2011-04-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Study of atmospheric stagnation, recirculation, and ventilation potential at Narora Atomic Power Station site Kumar, D Kumar, A Kumar, V Rao, KS Kumar, J Ravi, PM Atmosphere is an important pathway to be considered in assessment of the environmental impact of radioactivity releases from nuclear facilities. Estimation of concentration of released effluents in air and possible ground contamination needs an understanding of relevant atmospheric dispersion. This article describes the meteorological characteristics of Narora Atomic Power Station (NAPS) site by using the integral parameters developed by Allwine and Whiteman. Meteorological data measured during the period 2006-2010 were analyzed. The integral quantities related to the occurrence of stagnation, recirculation, and ventilation characteristics were studied for NAPS site to assess the dilution potential of the atmosphere. Wind run and recirculation factors were calculated for a 24-h transport time using 5 years of hourly surface measurements of wind speed and direction. The occurrence of stagnation, recirculation, and ventilation characteristics during 2006-2010 at NAPS site is observed to be 33.8% of the time, 19.5% of the time, and 34.7% of the time, respectively. The presence of strong winds with predominant wind direction NW and WNW during winter and summer seasons leads to higher ventilation (48.1% and 44.3%) and recirculation (32.6% of the summer season). The presence of light winds and more dispersed winds during prewinter season with predominant wind directions W and WNW results in more stagnation (59.7% of the prewinter season). Thus, this study will serve as an essential meteorological tool to understand the transport mechanism of atmospheric radioactive effluent releases from any nuclear industry. Medknow Publications 2011-04-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2011/34/2/104/98395 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:98396 2011-04-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Assessment of committed effective dose to human beings due to consumption of fishes collected from Pulicat Lagoon, south east of India Musthafa, MS Krishnamoorthy, R The activity concentration of <sup>210</sup> Po and <sup>210</sup> Pb were determined in the edible muscle tissues of 20 fish species collected from Pulicat Lagoon, south east of India. The concentrations were found to vary between 38.3 Bq.kg <sup>-[1]</sup> - 109.3 Bq.kg <sup>-[1]</sup> and 0.72 Bq.kg <sup>-[1]</sup> - 2.7 Bq.kg <sup>-[1]</sup> for <sup>[210]</sup> Po and <sup>[210]</sup> Pb respectively. These variations in the <sup>[210]</sup> Po and <sup>[210]</sup> Pb content in different species were probably due to differences in metabolism and feeding patterns. Appropriate conversion factors were used to derive the committed effective dose for human consumers, which were found to be 73.3 <sup>1</sup> - 209.1 μSv.yr <sup>-1</sup> and 2.2 - 19.3 μSv.yr <sup>-1</sup> for <sup>210</sup> Po and <sup>210</sup> Pb respectively. Medknow Publications 2011-04-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2011/34/2/110/98396 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:98398 2011-04-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Population dose from diagnostic procedures in Sindhudurg district of Maharashtra Dhawal, SJ Shete, PB Karande, VA Bandgar, AB Khyalappa, RJ Sharma, SD Pawar, SH The radiation exposure through medical diagnostic applications has one of the significant impact on human health in addition to other natural radiations. Most of the medical decisions are dependent on X-ray diagnosis. Although the patient is benefited by these X-ray procedures, knowledge of the radiation dose received by the patient during these radiological examinations is necessary. According to the International Commission on Radiological Protection recommendations all medical exposures should be subjected to the radiation safety principles of justification and optimization. Similarly International Atomic Energy Agency also recommended that the guidance levels for medical exposures shall be established for the use by medical practitioners and relevant professional bodies. Therefore, several studies have been carried out all over the world to establish proper guidance levels as well as made efforts in the reduction of unnecessary exposures. In this study, the survey of population exposed to medical X-ray diagnostics in the Sindhudurg district of Maharashtra, India has been carried out. For this study questionnaire was developed and used for the collection of data directly from the people as well as from diagnostic centres. The collected data was sorted according to type of examination, age and gender of the patient and presented here. Using this data collective effective dose and annual per caput effective dose for the Sindhudurg district were calculated. From the study it is concluded that the calculated effective dose per person per year for the region is of the order of 0.061 mSv that is lower than the average value across the global population that is of the order of 0.62 mSv as given in the UNSCEAR 2008 report. Medknow Publications 2011-04-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2011/34/2/114/98398 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:98400 2011-04-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Preliminary studies on <sup>226</sup> Ra and <sup>232</sup> Th, and <sup>40</sup> K concentrations from quartzite rocks used as building materials Otoo, F Darko, EO Emi-Reynolds, G Adukpo, OK Andam, AB The naturally occurring radioactive materials associated with quartzite rock samples used in the raw form or as aggregates in building materials from different geological locations have been studied using gamma spectrometry. The activity concentration of <sup>226</sup> Ra, <sup>232</sup> Th, and <sup>40</sup> K ranged from 27.64 to 225.78 Bq/kg for <sup>226</sup> Ra, from 20.08 to 72.07 Bq/kg for <sup>232</sup> Th, and from 118.09 to 1443.76 Bq/kg for <sup>40</sup> K. The highest values of <sup>226</sup> Ra and <sup>232</sup> Th occurred in gneiss quartzite from Twin Quarry (TQ), Shai Hills, while the lowest values of <sup>226</sup> Ra and <sup>232</sup> Th were recorded in gneiss quartzite from Rockshell International Quarry (RIQ), Shai Hills. The activity concentration of <sup>40</sup> K varied from 118.09 to 1443.76 Bq/kg, with the highest value in gneiss quartzite from Twin Quarry, Shai Hills, while the lowest activity concentration of <sup>40</sup> K resulting in the micaceous quartzite was recorded from Atomic Hills. The radium equivalent activity (Ra <sub>eq</sub> ; 98.82-414.35 Bq/kg), the external hazard index (H <sub>ex</sub> ; (0.27-1.12), gamma activity concentration index (I <sub>g</sub> ; 0.28-1.48), the absorbed dose rate D in air (11.35-47.72 nGy/h), and the annual effective dose (E <sub>T</sub> ) (0.08-0.23 mSv/y) were evaluated to assess the radiation hazard to people living in dwellings made of these building materials. The results obtained were found to be within the acceptable limits for public exposure control recommended by the European Commission, International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development-Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA-OECD). Medknow Publications 2011-04-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2011/34/2/119/98400 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:98402 2011-04-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Measurement of radioactivity and hence define the radiological risk associated with the Chittagong city site coastal sediment containing all types of wastes (mills, factories, industries, and municipalities) in Bangladesh Alam, MK Chakraborty, SR Rahman, AR Deb, AK Kamal, M Bhuian, SI The research work was carried out with an aim to determine the radiological threat to the inhabitants of Chittagong city in Bangladesh. To investigate the radiological threat, the activity concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides <sup>238</sup> U, <sup>232</sup> Th, <sup>226</sup> Ra, and <sup>40</sup> K were measured in the sediment samples collected from three locations of the major drainages (Chaktai Khal and Karnaphuli River) of Chittagong city. The activity concentrations of all the elements were found to be higher than those of the world average values. In the samples studied, the artificial radionuclide <sup>137</sup> Cs has not been detected. The radiation doses from where the samples were collected were measured directly by employing beta-gamma survey meter (model: LUDLUM 44-9). The average values of the radiological parameters calculated from the activity concentrations of the radionuclides mentioned in the sediment samples were found to be higher than those of the corresponding world average values. The results of the present research were compared with the corresponding results obtained in other locations of Bangladesh as well as in different countries published in different journals. Medknow Publications 2011-04-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2011/34/2/129/98402 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:98403 2011-04-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Assessment of occupational and public exposures due to natural radioactivity in saline soil at Panbros salt industry limited in the Accra metropolis of Ghana Kansaana, C Darko, EO Schandorf, C Adukpo, OK Faanu, A Lawluvi, H Kpeglo, DO This study was conducted to assess occupational and public exposures due to natural radioactivity from <sup>238</sup> U, <sup>232</sup> Th, and <sup>40</sup> K in saline soil at Panbros Salt Industry Limited in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana. Activity concentrations in samples were measured using gamma spectrometry. The average annual effective dose in an outdoor environment for an individual worker was estimated to be 0.06 mSv/year, and for a member of the public, it was estimated to be 0.05 mSv/year. These values are below the average effective dose of 0.07 mSv/year received per caput worldwide due to external terrestrial radiation outdoors, given in UNSCEAR 2000 report. The results indicate insignificant contamination of the salt mining environment, and hence the workers and the public are not exposed to any significant radiological health hazard. Medknow Publications 2011-04-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2011/34/2/137/98403 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:98404 2011-04-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
30 <sup>th</sup> IARP conference on "Radiological protection and safety in nuclear reactors and radiation installations" Mangalore, Karnataka: Panel discussion Prasad, SK Pushparaja Medknow Publications 2011-04-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2011/34/2/144/98404 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:98405 2011-04-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
News and Information Pushparaja Medknow Publications 2011-04-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2011/34/2/147/98405 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:98391 2011-04-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Can the LNT controversy ever be solved? Pushparaja Medknow Publications 2011-04-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2011/34/2/87/98391 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:98393 2011-04-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Analysis of gamma induced DNA strand breaks and repair in normal HACAT and tumor HT 29 cells using comet assay Joseph, P Bhat, NN Yerol, N Ionizing radiation is a potent inducer of DNA damage and comet assay provides a very sensitive method for detecting strand breaks and measuring repair kinetics in single cells. The DNA repair capability influence cell sensitivity to ionizing radiation and predicting radio sensitivity of a cell population is very important for radiation therapy. In the present study the effect of gamma radiation on inducing DNA damage in two cell lines, normal human keratinocytes (HaCaT) and human tumor adenocarcinoma (HT 29) has been analyzed. Radiation treatment has been carried out using gamma radiation from a <sup>60</sup> Co source and the induction and repair of DNA strand breaks were quantified using alkaline comet assay. Repair studies were performed by incubating the sample at 37 <sup>0</sup> C for different recovery times with the aim of elucidating repair kinetics. The relation between initial DNA strand breaks and the rejoining kinetics of the strand breaks has been studied in the present investigation. The average repair half time for both the cell lines has been found out. Heterogeneity in DNA damage within the cell population was observed as a function of radiation dose and repair time. It is observed that a comparatively radio resistant tumor cell line HT 29 has a shorter repair half time compared to that of normal cell HaCaT. Both the cell lines showed a dose-dependent repair activity and it indicates that the repair rate is proportional to the induced damage. Medknow Publications 2011-04-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2011/34/2/89/98393 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:98394 2011-04-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
A post-tsunami study on the distribution and bioaccumulation of natural radionuclides in Pichavaram mangrove environment (South East Coast of India) and dose to local human population Satheeshkumar, G Hameed, PS Meeramaideen, M Kannan, V The paper reports the impact of the December 26, 2004 Sumatra Tsunami on the radioactivity profile in the environment of Pichavaram Mangroves (South East Coast of India) and bioaccumulation of two toxic radionuclides <sup>210</sup> Po and <sup>210</sup> Pb in seafood organisms and possible dose transfer to local fisherman population through seafood intake. The present study (Post-Tsunami) recorded low levels in all radiological parameters analyzed with respect to primordials in sediments and <sup>210</sup> Po and <sup>210</sup> Pb in water, sediment, and seafood organisms as compared with the Pre-Tsunami data. The mean activity of <sup>238</sup> U and <sup>232</sup> Th recorded in the present study were 12.2 Bq/kg and 11.7 Bq/kg, respectively. The activity of <sup>210</sup> Po in water was less (1.4 mBq/l) than that of <sup>210</sup> Pb (2.7 mBq/l). In contrast, the activity of <sup>210</sup> Po in sediment was distinctly higher (3.3 Bq/kg) than that of <sup>210</sup> Pb (1.7 Bq/kg). The shell fishes (Prawn, Crab, Bivalves, and Squid) accumulated more <sup>210</sup> Po (16.4 Bq/kg) and <sup>210</sup> Pb (2.7 Bq/kg) than the fin fishes ( <sup>210</sup> Po: 6.9 Bq/kg; <sup>210</sup> Pb: 1.5 Bq/kg). The results indicated that fin fishes as seafood were relatively less radioactive compared with shell fishes. About 90% Committed Effective Dose Equivalent to fisherman population due to seafood intake was from <sup>210</sup> Po (712 μSv/y) and 10% from <sup>210</sup> Pb (78 μSv/y). The higher dose transfer to Pichavaram fisherman was attributed to relatively more seafood consumption. A low-level background radiation in the Post-Tsunami environment of Pichavaram Mangroves was due to the hydrodynamics of the Tsunami waves which removed the Pichavaram sediments loaded with monazites and other particles containing radionuclides. Medknow Publications 2011-04-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2011/34/2/96/98394 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:101680 2011-07-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Norm and tenorm waste management Pushparaja Medknow Publications 2011-07-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2011/34/3/152/101680 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:101681 2011-07-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Neutron and gamma dose measurement in the working area of a research reactor using passive dosimeters Sathian, D Bakshi, AK Prasad, S Kalyanasundaram, N Chougaonkar, MP Radiation dose measurement at selected locations around the experimental facilities of a research reactor was carried out. Passive dosimeters based on CR-39 and CaSO <sub>4</sub> :Dy Teflon disc and <sup>6</sup> LiF:Mg,Ti and <sup>7</sup> LiF:Mg,Ti based neutron and gamma dosimeters were used in the study for the measurement of ambient dose equivalent (H*(10)). Measured neutron and gamma dose equivalent rates were found to be within the stipulated limit as per the guidelines of Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (the regulatory authority of India) for the radiation workers. Medknow Publications 2011-07-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2011/34/3/153/101681 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:101682 2011-07-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Radioanalytical determination of plutonium and americium using ion exchange and extraction chromatography technique in urine Santhanakrishnan, V Sreedevi, KR Rajaram, S Ravi, PM The use of anion exchange chromatography for the separation of Pu and extraction chromatography technique for the separation of Am from urine samples was studied. In the earlier method, Pu separation was carried out by anion exchange chromatography followed by Am separation by cation exchange chromatography. The chemical recovery of Am obtained by cation exchange separation method was inconsistent and low in the range 30-70%. In this study, the average Pu recovery obtained using anion exchange chromatography was 89.2 with standard deviation of 10.4 and the average Am recovery obtained using extraction chromatography with TRU resin was 77.4 with standard deviation of 14.8. Moreover, Am separation could be completed within three hours using the TRU column compared to two days that were required for the cation exchange chromatography. Medknow Publications 2011-07-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2011/34/3/157/101682 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:101687 2011-07-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Fukushima to Jaitapur: Battling fear of unknown Ghate, TP Takwale, MG Dhole, S After-Fukushima incident, various concerns were raised by public and media about the safety of nuclear installations operating all around the world. All nuclear related eventualities of the past were meshed with the present, adding disproportionate factors, unrealistic conclusions were framed based mostly on notions. Fear of unknown radiation syndrome has played up on the minds of common man. India, on a verge of entering path-breaking nuclear energy arena, obviously could not be isolated from such concerns. Such issues were discussed with ongoing protests at Jaitapur and Kudankulam. This paper discusses various concerns expressed after Fukushima incident, overview on proposed Jaitapur nuclear power plant and justifications to the raised concerns. Medknow Publications 2011-07-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2011/34/3/159/101687 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:101690 2011-07-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Ozone and Environment Agarwal, B Agarwal, S Rao, J Each year for the past few decades during the Southern Hemisphere spring, chemical reactions involving chlorine and bromine cause ozone in the southern polar region to be destroyed rapidly and severely. This depleted region is known as the "ozone hole". Throughout the 20th century, discoveries and observations allow scientists to understand how human-made chemicals like chlorofluorocarbons create a hole in the ozone layer over Antarctica each spring. Medknow Publications 2011-07-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2011/34/3/164/101690 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:101700 2011-07-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Bremsstrahlung dose of strontium-89 in therapy application Manjunatha, HC Sankarshan, BM Chandrika, BM Rudraswamy, B There has been an increased interest in strontium-89 (Sr-89) therapy, which emits relatively high-energy (1.495 MeV) beta rays. The production in vivo bremsstrahlung radiation sufficient for external imaging and this radiation hazard warrants evaluation. The bremsstrahlung (secondary radiation) of Sr-89 has been traditionally ignored in internal dosimetry calculation. We have estimated the bremsstrahlung dose of Sr-89 source in the muscle and bone to body the various body organs (such as adrenals, brain, breasts, gallbladder wall, LLI wall, small intestine, stomach, ULI wall, heart wall, kidneys, liver, lungs, muscle, ovaries, pancreas, red marrow, bone surfaces, skin, spleen, testes, thymus, thyroid, urine bladder wall, uterus, fetus, placenta, and total body) from distributed sources of Sr-89 in the muscle and bone. In the present study, muscle and bone is considered as source organs. The bremsstrahlung dose of Sr-89 source in a muscle is less than that of cortical bone. In both muscle and bone medium, bremsstrahlung dose decreases with distance. These estimated values show that the bremsstrahlung radiation absorbed dose contribution from an organ to itself is very small, but contribution to other organs is not always negligible especially when large amounts of Sr-89 may be involved as in therapy applications. Medknow Publications 2011-07-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2011/34/3/166/101700 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:101710 2011-07-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Measurement of natural radioactivity in common building materials used in Tiruvannamalai, Tamilnadu, India Ravisankar, R Suganya, M Vanasundari, K Sivakumar, S Senthilkumar, G Chandramohan, J Vijayagopal, P Venkatraman, B The radioactivity of some building materials used in Tiruvannamali City has been measured using a NaI (Tl) detector based gamma ray spectrometer. The distribution of natural occurring radionuclides ( <sup>226</sup> Ra, <sup>232</sup> Th and <sup>40</sup> K) in the building materials was studied. The radium equivalent activity (Ra <sub>eq</sub> ), the activity utilization index (I), external hazard index (H <sub>ex</sub> ) and internal radiation hazard index (H <sub>in</sub> ) associated with the natural radionuclide are calculated to assess the radiation hazard of the natural radioactivity in the building materials. The present work shows that the natural radioactivity levels in the building construction materials used in Tiruvannmalai City is well below the acceptable limits. From the analysis, it was found that these materials may be safely used as construction materials and do not pose significant radiation hazards. Medknow Publications 2011-07-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2011/34/3/172/101710 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:101714 2011-07-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Determination of natural radioactivity in beach sand in the extreme south of Bahia, Brazil, using gamma spectrometry Vasconcelos, DC Pereira, C Oliveira, AH Santos, TO Rocha, Z The natural radionuclides activity concentrations in beach sand of the extreme south of Bahia, Brazil, was measured by Gamma Spectrometry. The Radium Equivalent Activity, the external hazard index, the absorbed dose rate and the annual effective dose were assessed and compared with internationally published values for external dose and activity concentrations. The activity concentrations of <sup>226</sup> Ra, <sup>232</sup> Th and <sup>40</sup> K in beach sand ranged from 8.4 to 8,300 Bqkg <sup>-1</sup> with a mean value of 910 Bq.kg <sup>-1</sup> , from 21 to 18,450 Bqkg <sup>-1</sup> with a mean value of 2,220 Bqkg <sup>-1</sup> and from 3.4 to 3,110 Bqkg <sup>-1</sup> with a mean value of 352 Bqkg <sup>-1</sup> , respectively. The results indicate that the absorbed dose rates range from 21 to 14,450 nGyh <sup>-1</sup> with mean value of 1,792 nGy.h <sup>-1</sup> . The highest value of gamma dose rates among the studied beaches were found in Cumuruxatiba (14,450 nGyh <sup>-1</sup> ). The annual effective dose range between 0.03 and 17.70 mSvy <sup>-1</sup> , with the mean value of 2.20 mSvy <sup>-1</sup> . In four studied beaches, the assessed outdoor annual effective doses are above the worldwide average of 0.07 mSvy <sup>-1</sup> as reported by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. Especially in the area of black sands, a big part of Cumuruxatiba beach, whose annual effective dose of 17.70 mSvy <sup>-1</sup> is much higher than worldwide average. Medknow Publications 2011-07-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2011/34/3/178/101714 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:101716 2011-07-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Thermoluminescence and photoluminescence study of CaSO<sub>4</sub> : Dy nanophosphor for 6 MeV energy electron dosimetry Mandlik, NT Bhoraskar, VN Sahare, PD Patil, BJ Kumar, V Kulkarni, MS Dhole, SD Nanoparticles of CaSO <sub>4</sub> : Dy with size around 25 nm, were synthesized by the chemical co-precipitation method for the purpose of high energy electron dosimetry. The nanocrytstalline samples were irradiated with 6 MeV energy electrons having fluence varied from 3 × 10 <sup>14</sup> to 2 × 10 <sup>15</sup> e/cm <sup>2</sup> .The pre and post irradiated samples were characterized by the XRD, SEM, PL and TL techniques. The XRD spectra show the orthorhombic phase and do not change with the electron fluence. Moreover, the particle size found to be around 25 nm and marginally increased from 25 nm to 34 nm with the increase in the electron fluence. SEM image confirms the existence of the nanoparticle around 30 to 40 nm. In PL emission spectra, a shift towards lower wavelength has been observed with decrease in particle size from micrometer to nanometer. This mainly attributes to the extension in the band gap of Dy <sup>3+</sup> ions. The TL spectra exhibit four peaks at around 437,545,638, and 748 K respectively. The TL response curve shows that the peak intensity initially increased with electron fluence, and at a fluence of 9 × 10 <sup>14</sup> e/cm <sup>2</sup> saturates then decreased with increase in the electron fluence. It is mainly due to the generation of different kinds of trapping centers. The present study indicates that the CaSO <sub>4</sub> : Dy phosphor can be used for the measurement of dose of 6 MeV energy electrons over a range varying from 1 kGy to 25 kGy. Medknow Publications 2011-07-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2011/34/3/185/101716 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:101717 2011-07-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Analysis of triple-labeled samples by multivariate liquid scintillation counting Reddy, PJ Bhade, S Babu, D Sharma, DN The radioassay of samples containing three pure beta emitters having various activity ratios has been performed by using the most probable value theory applied to liquid scintillation detection. The principle of the technique is based on experimentally generating simultaneous equations more than the radionuclides to be analyzed. This technique requires a liquid scintillation counter and sets of quenched radionuclide standards. The present technique has been applied successfully to the case of <sup>3</sup> H- <sup>35</sup> S- <sup>36</sup> Cl in composite mixtures. Medknow Publications 2011-07-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2011/34/3/190/101717 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:101720 2011-07-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Study of distribution of radionuclides in cultivated land in and around chikmagalur, Karnataka, India Manjunatha, S Jayasheelan, A Venkataramanaiah, P Cultivation of land modifies soil characteristics and influences redistribution of radionuclides in topsoil. The concentrations of <sup>210</sup> Po and <sup>210</sup> Pb in the cultivated land of Chikmagalur were measured by wet ashing silver planchet electroplating alpha count method. The concentration of <sup>226</sup> Ra was determined using Emanometry Method. The samples were precipitated by chemical processes and the concentrations of <sup>228</sup> Ra measured using high efficiency low level background gas flow beta counter. The lowest activity of <sup>226</sup> Ra, <sup>228</sup> Ra <sup>210</sup> Po and <sup>210</sup> Pb recorded at study area were 6.1, 5.6, 12.9 and 20.6 Bq.Kg <sup>-1</sup> and maxima were 47.7, 29.6, 71.2 and 120.5 Bq.Kg <sup>-1</sup> and mean 13.8, 19.2, 28.6 and 1.8 Bq.Kg <sup>-1</sup> respectively. The mean of ratios of <sup>210</sup> Po and <sup>210</sup> Pb in cultivated and uncultivated land were found to be 0.53 and 1.06 respectively. Concentrations of <sup>226</sup> Ra, <sup>228</sup> Ra and <sup>210</sup> Po in cultivated land found to be lower than that of undisturbed land but reverse in case of <sup>210</sup> Pb. Decrease in activities of <sup>226</sup> Ra, <sup>228</sup> Ra, and <sup>210</sup> Po in cultivated may due to wash out of 'floating fraction' with rainwater and the increase of activity of <sup>210</sup> Pb may be due to re-suspension. The 're-suspension factor' (K) increases for <sup>226</sup> Ra, <sup>228</sup> Ra, and <sup>210</sup> Po in cultivated and fertilizer added area, but not for <sup>210</sup> Pb. Also the concentrations of radionuclides were found to be high in comparison with global and Indian average. Medknow Publications 2011-07-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2011/34/3/193/101720 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:101722 2011-07-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Concentration of <sup>222</sup> rn in drinking water along coastal kerala and evaluation of ingestion doses D'Cunha, P Narayana, Y Karunakara, N Yashodhara, I Kumara, S In this study, the result of systematic measurement of activity concentration of <sup>222</sup> Rn in drinking water from sources of public water supply along the coastal regions of Kerala is discussed. The <sup>222</sup> Rn concentrations in water were measured using the emanometry method and it was found to vary from 0.03 to 1.31Bq l<sup>−1</sup> . The associated effective doses were computed for the population of the region. Medknow Publications 2011-07-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2011/34/3/197/101722 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:101724 2011-07-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Application of liquid scintillation inclusion method for the simultaneous determination of alpha and beta activities in composite samples Reddy, PJ Sharma, DN Present work highlights liquid scintillation Automatic Efficiency Control (AEC) as a tool for simultaneous determination of gross α and β activities in composite samples. AEC which is in-built feature in Packard Tri-Carb 2900TR Liquid Scintillation Counter (LSC) provides automatic counting region adjustments for single and dual label samples according to the degree of quench present in sample. In the present study, α/β spiked composite samples were treated as dual label samples with α and β radio-nuclides as two distinct entities contributing to the gross activities and analyzed employing AEC technique. Instrument discriminator settings and regions of interest (ROI) were evaluated to determine optimum counting conditions for present technique. Three sets of pure alpha and pure beta standards simulating the activity concentrations of real samples in terms of α/β activity ratios were used to calibrate LSC. Calibration methodology for Packard Tri-Carb 2900TR LSC with respect to the above measurements using <sup>241</sup> Am, <sup>36</sup> Cl calibration standards is explained in detail. The practicability and working performance of AEC technique was checked by the validation trials with spiked synthetic samples covering range of α/β activity ratios from 1:1 to 1:30 and 30:1. Medknow Publications 2011-07-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2011/34/3/201/101724 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:101726 2011-07-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
A study of Helicobacter pylori infection using the <sup>14</sup> C UBT method Swaroop, K Jayachandran Patil, SL Somashekarappa, HM Carbon-14 ( <sup>14</sup> C) is present in the environment and in all organic materials and behaves in the environment in the same manner as other carbon isotopes. In medicine, <sup>14</sup> C can be injected to study abnormalities of metabolism that underlie diabetes, gout, anaemia and acromegaly (adult "gigantism"), and for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). The discovery H. pylori by Warren and Marshall in 1982 changed the approach to treat peptic ulcer disease (PUD). Since then H. pylori has been the focus of clinical research and debate. The causal relationship between H. pylori infection and chronic gastritis is well established. H. pylori infection is one of the most common human infections worldwide. This organism has been shown to infect over half of the world's population. This article presents the application of <sup>14</sup> C Urea Breath Test ( <sup>14</sup> C UBT) for the diagnosis of the H. pylori bacteria which present in the stomach and duodenum. <sup>14</sup> C UBT relies on the urease activity of H. pylori to detect the presence of active infection. <sup>14</sup> C UBT has proved to be one of the most accurate methods for assessing H. pylori status. The ionizing radiation dose involved in this test is extremely low, much lower than the radiation dose due to natural sources. 209 samples collected from both symptomatic and non-symptomatic persons of Dakhina Kannada District, Karnataka were analysed and the results with discussion are presented in this paper. Medknow Publications 2011-07-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2011/34/3/206/101726 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:101727 2011-07-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Estimation of grass to milk transfer coefficient for cesium for emergency situations Ujwal, P Karunakara, N Yashodhara, I Rao, C Kumara, S Dileep, BN Nayak, PD Ravi, PM The grass to milk transfer coefficient is usually represented as F <sub>m</sub> values. This paper reports the results of grass to cow milk transfer coefficients (F <sub>m</sub> ) for Cesium for emergency situation. An experimental grass field was developed in Kaiga region and two cows were adopted for collecting milk samples regularly. Grass was cut from the field and spiked with very low concentration of Cs (in the form of CsCl or CsI), to simulate a sudden deposition of Cs on grass and fed to the adopted cows. The milk samples were collected during normal milking periods (morning and evening) for several days and analyzed. The peak concentration of Cs in milk was observed during time period 24-36 hrs after the intake of spiked grass. Three spike experiments were carried out and values of F <sub>m</sub> were found to be 7.8 × 10 <sup>-3</sup> d L <sup>-1</sup> , 3.5×10 <sup>-3</sup> d L <sup>-1</sup> and 2.4×10 <sup>-3</sup> d L <sup>-1</sup> . The grass to milk transfer coefficient values observed under spiked conditions were an order of magnitude lower when compared to the equilibrium transfer coefficient for Kaiga region, which highlights the importance of studies aimed at generating site-specific database on F <sub>m</sub> for simulated emergency situation. Medknow Publications 2011-07-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2011/34/3/210/101727 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:101728 2011-07-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
On improving public perception of nuclear power Iyer, MR Medknow Publications 2011-07-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2011/34/3/213/101728 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:101729 2011-07-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
The SI unit of radioactivity (Bq) is too small for public consumption! Pushparaja Medknow Publications 2011-07-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2011/34/3/215/101729 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:106070 2011-10-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Radiological protection aspects of natural radioactivity of building materials Pushparaja Medknow Publications 2011-10-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2011/34/4/220/106070 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:106072 2011-10-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Assessment of electron and gamma-induced dna damage in human peripheral blood by alkaline comet assay Joseph, P Yerol, N Nairy, R Sanjeev, G Bhat, NN In the present study, the effect of electron and gamma irradiation on the induction of DNA damage in human peripheral blood cells was investigated using comet assay. Blood samples were irradiated with an 8 MeV pulsed electron beam at a dose rate of 100 Gy min <sup>-1</sup> . Gamma irradiation was carried out at a dose rate of 2 Gy min <sup>-1</sup> using <sup>60</sup> Co gamma source. The total dose delivered to the samples was varied from 0 to 4 Gy. Samples were maintained at 0° C before irradiation, and the comet assay was carried out immediately after irradiation. Electrophoresis was performed at a field strength of 0.74 V cm <sup>-1</sup> for 25 min at 4°C. A dose-dependent increase in DNA damage was observed. From the observed DNA damage, the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for electron radiation with reference to gamma radiation on induction of DNA damage has been calculated. Medknow Publications 2011-10-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2011/34/4/221/106072 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:106073 2011-10-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Study on airborne radioactivity levels in dwellings of Tumkur district, Karnataka state, India Jayasheelan, A Sannappa, J Umeshareddy, K Ningappa, C Manjunatha, S Radon is a radioactive gas produced by the decay of <sup>226</sup> Ra present in the soil, rock, water and in atmosphere. Radon, thoron and their progeny are present in indoor and outdoor atmosphere. The concentration of these gases in indoor atmosphere is higher than that of outdoor. In the present study, the concentrations of radon, thoron and their progenies in some taluks of Tumkur district were estimated and the doses due them were calculated. Twin cup dosimeters with alpha sensitive films, LR- 115 type-2, were used for the measurement of concentrations of radionuclides. The mean indoor gamma radiation dose was found to be 0.64 mSvy<sup>−1</sup> with highest of 0.75 mSvy<sup>−1</sup> in Kunigal taluk. The concentrations of radon in good ventilated dwellings with granite floorings varied from 20.66 Bqm<sup>−3</sup> in Tumkur city to 27.61 Bqm<sup>−3</sup> in Kunigal. In poor ventilated dwellings, the concentrations of radon varied from 35.56 Bqm<sup>−3</sup> in Tumkur to 44.87 Bqm<sup>−3</sup> in Turuvekere. The dwellings with granite flooring showed higher concentration of radioactive gases than with marble as flooring and other floorings. The dwelling situated near the granite rocks showed higher concentrations. Medknow Publications 2011-10-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2011/34/4/225/106073 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:106091 2011-10-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Measurements of the natural radioactivity in building materials (raw and manufactured), other than granites in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Aydarous, A Zeghib, S Eldaghmah, M In this work, we have measured the natural radioactivity contents of the building materials (raw and manufactured) using HPGe detector. The intensities of γ-ray emitted by radioactive nuclides present in the samples were determined. Efficiencies of the detector at different energies were determined using standard sources, so that radioactivity content of the samples can be estimated. Samples from different areas in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia were collected. These samples were prepared in the form of fine powder suitable to be used by Marinelli beakers. Software equipped with the detector electronic system had been used to analyze the data; hence the results were recorded. The highest measured activity concentrations in the samples are: 48, 42, and 971 Bq/kg for <sup>232</sup> Th, <sup>226</sup> Ra, and <sup>40</sup> K, respectively, which are in the range of the corresponding typical worldwide values. The absorbed dose rates, effective dose rates, radium equivalent activities as well as the radiation hazard indices were estimated. The maximum radium equivalent activity (Ra <sub>eq</sub> ) was 186 Bq/kg, which is lower than the limit of 370 Bq/kg set by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. Medknow Publications 2011-10-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2011/34/4/229/106091 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:106093 2011-10-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Study of radon exhalation rate from soil, Bangalore, South India Ashok, GV Nagaiah, N Ambika, MR The <sup>222</sup> Rn exhalation rate measurements are useful in identifying the locations of high radon exposure. On the other hand, atmospheric <sup>222</sup> Rn concentrations have been observed as an effective tracer for terrestrial air mass movements and atmospheric mixing mass movements. In view of this, year-long measurements of <sup>222</sup> Rn and its exhalation rates were carried out at J B Campus of Bangalore city, and the diurnal and seasonal variations have also been studied. Diurnally, exhalation rate was found to be high during night and early morning hours and low during afternoon hours. The diurnal variability of temperature difference between the lower and upper layers of the soil was found to be responsible for the observed diurnal variations. The monthly average of <sup>222</sup> Rn exhalation rate ranges from 10.63 ± 1.75 to 4.95 ± 0.65 mBq m <sup>-2</sup> s <sup>-1</sup> . The annual mean value of radon exhalation rate was found to be 8.27 ± 1.83 mBq m <sup>-2</sup> s <sup>-1</sup> . Medknow Publications 2011-10-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2011/34/4/235/106093 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:106096 2011-10-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Estimation of atmospheric dilution factors for trombay site using the air pollution model Shrivastava, R Indumati, SP Pote, MB Oza, RB Puranik, VD This paper presents the application of The Air Pollution Model (TAPM) in estimation of atmospheric dilution factors for Trombay site for unit release rate in different wind sectors. The values obtained from the model are compared with those obtained from routinely collected meteorological data at 10 m height. The measurement carried out at 10 m height is extrapolated to the release height using power laws with stability-dependent coefficient. The maximum value of dilution factor at 1.6 km, computed using model data is 0.1039E-06 s/m <sup>3</sup> while that obtained using measured data is 0.1238E-06 s/m <sup>3</sup> ; however, the two are occurring in different sectors. Thus, model-generated dilution factors can be used in case if only the maximum impact of the releases need to be studied and no measured data are available. In general, it was found that except few sectors, model-generated dilution factors remain within a factor of two as compared to that generated using measured data. The main application of this study is for upcoming sites where representative measured meteorological data may not be available; however, computation of atmospheric dilution factors is required for environmental impact assessment. Medknow Publications 2011-10-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2011/34/4/240/106096 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:106097 2011-10-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Radiation exposure control by estimation of multiplication factors for online remote radiation monitoring systems at vitrification plant Deokar, UV Kulkarni, VV Khot, AR Mathew, P Kamlesh Purohit, RG Sarkar, PK Vitrification Plant is commissioned for vitrification of high-level liquid waste generated in Nuclear Fuel Cycle operations by using Joule Heated Ceramic Melter first time in India. Exposure control is a major concern in operating plant. Therefore, in addition to installed monitors, we have developed online remote radiation monitoring system to minimize number of entries in amber areas and to reduce the exposure to the surveyor and operator. This also helped in volume reduction of secondary waste. The reliability and accuracy of the online monitoring system is confirmed with actual measurements and by theoretical shielding calculations. The multiplication factors were estimated for remote online monitoring of Melter off Gas (MOG) filter, Hood filter, three exhaust filter banks, and overpack monitoring. This paper summarizes how the online remote monitoring system had helped in saving of 128.52 Person-mSv collective dose (14.28% of budgeted dose) and also there was 2.6 m <sup>3</sup> reduction in generation of Cat-I waste. Medknow Publications 2011-10-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2011/34/4/242/106097 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:106180 2011-10-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Radiological safety study of clad failed fuel handling during fifty years of operation of cirus Meena, TR Yadav, RK Prasad, SK Deolekar, SS Babu, KS Ramesh, N Ranjan, R CIRUS reactor, the nucleus of nuclear programme of India is a 40MW research reactor commissioned in July 1960. The reactor was operated efficiently for nearly five decades before it was shutdown permanently on 31 <sup>st</sup> December 2010. During the reactor operation, incidences of Clad Failed Fuel (CFF) were considered as Safety Related Unusual Occurrences (SRUOs). Incidences of CFF could sometimes lead to severe contamination of system resulting in personnel exposure and generation of large amount of liquid and solid radioactive wastes. CFF detection system used earlier was Gaseous Fission Product Radiation Alarm (GFPRA), which was replaced with new gamma based Failed Fuel Detection (FFD) system during refurbishing of Cirus during 1997-2002. CFF rods handling during nearly five decades of CIRUS reactor operation were studied in detail. Important radiological data related to identification and removal of CFF rod were also analyzed. Collective dose consumption and waste generated both solid and liquid for each CFF was also studied in detail. The use of the new gamma-based FFD system resulted in lowering of collective dose from 110 to 12 Person-mSv per incidence and also reduction in spread of contamination. Medknow Publications 2011-10-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2011/34/4/246/106180 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:106181 2011-10-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
A study of gamma radiation induced changes in electrical properties of Aℓ/TeO <sub>2</sub> /n-Si/Aℓ mos capacitor for dosimetric applications Chourasiya, G Maity, TK Sharma, SL Sarkar, J Vyas, JC The study of the effects of ionizing radiation on MOS devices has been an active area of research due to their wide range applications. Some attempts have recently been made to investigate the influence of ionizing radiation on properties of the MOS capacitor prepared by replacing SiO <sub>2</sub> layer by any metal oxide layer of large band gap and then to understand its response. The effect of gamma radiation on electrical properties of the Aℓ/TeO <sub>2</sub> /n-Si/Aℓ MOS capacitor has been studied in detail for the first time in the present work in order to understand its applicability in the post-exposure gamma radiation dosimetry. The effect of gamma radiation on the real and imaginary parts of the permittivity, dielectric loss, series resistance, ac conductivity and surface state density has been determined. These properties have been obtained by analyzing C-V and G/ω-V characteristics, recorded at a frequency 1.0 MHz of the small ac signal, for the MOS structure exposed to different levels of the gamma radiation dose. The linear variation of the dielectric constant with the gamma radiation dose over a wide range of doses, observed corresponding to the accumulation region of the MOS capacitor, possesses high potential for its application as the post-exposure gamma radiation dosimeter. Medknow Publications 2011-10-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2011/34/4/249/106181 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:106182 2011-10-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Performance of LaCl <sub>3</sub> detector for environmental radioactivity measurements Narayani, K Anilkumar, S Rekha, AK Assessment of natural radioactivity in the environment using gamma spectrometry is common method. NaI (Tl) detectors and HPGe detectors are used for gamma spectrometry in general. The recent arrival of Lanthanum Halide detectors have better resolution compared to NaI (Tl) detectors. In the present work, the performance of Lanthanum Chloride (LaCl <sub>3</sub> ) detector for the natural radioactivity estimation is studied and compared with NaI (Tl) and HPGe detectors. Medknow Publications 2011-10-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2011/34/4/253/106182 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:106187 2011-10-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Thoron interference test of different continuous passive radon monitors Sumesh, CG Kumar, AV Tripathi, RM Puranik, VD The instruments measuring radon concentration without energy discrimination may have some sensitivity towards thoron concentration. In the present paper, thoron interference tests of a pulse - ionization - chamber - type instrument - Alpha Guard and a semi - conductor - based instrument - Radon Scout Plus (RSP) have been studied in detail. The instruments are compared with a standard active radon - thoron discriminating monitor - RAD7. As a result 9% interference in measured radon concentration for the Alpha Guard monitor and 4% interference for the RSP monitor were observed. The results obtained indicate that the interference of thoron in radon monitors depends on the area of diffusion of gas, volume of detection and sensitivity factor of the monitor. Medknow Publications 2011-10-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2011/34/4/257/106187 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:106194 2011-10-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Analysis of neutron streaming through the trenches at linac based neutron generator facility, IGCAR Pujala, U Thilagam, L Selvakumaran, TS Mohapatra, DK Raja, EA Subbaiah, KV Baskaran, R Shielded LINAC hall has been built to accommodate a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linear accelerator (LINAC) based pulsed neutron generator at RSD, IGCAR. The concrete neutron shield wall thickness for the LINAC hall is finalized by adopting NCRP-51 methodology. The dimensions of the trenches and labyrinth are decided based on the neutron generator installation requirements. As per the AERB safety criteria, the radiation dose levels in the occupancy area should be less than 1μSv/h. However, the refined dose estimate with the inclusion of actual trench and labyrinth dimensions indicates an increased dose rate of ~3.10 μSv/h in LINAC control room. Hence, the control room is declared as controlled area. Additional shielding has been proposed for the trenches and labyrinth to make the control room as full occupancy area. For designing the additional shielding, experimental and theoretical analyses are needed to estimate the radiation streaming through the trenches and labyrinth. To start with, the neutron streaming through trenches have been studied using 185 GBq (5Ci) <sup>241</sup> Am-Be neutron source for qualifying the trenches. The <sup>241</sup> Am-Be source position is selected at the trench entrance such that it contributes the same neutron flux as that of neutron generator. Neutron dose rate and spectral measurements have been carried out at five locations along the trench from the entrance (LINAC hall side) to the exit (Control room side) of the trench.The experimental results are validated with the theoretical calculations using Monte Carlo N particle (MCNP) code. The analysis shows that the trenches are having a dose reduction factor better than 800 with respect to that of entrance dose. The observed dose rate at the trench exit is found to be less than 450nSv/h. In this paper, both the theoretical and experimental neutron streaming analyses through the trenches of LINAC hall are presented. Medknow Publications 2011-10-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2011/34/4/262/106194 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:106196 2011-10-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Radiation levels and radionuclide distributions in soils of the gogi region, a proposed uranium mining region in north Karnataka Yashodhara, I Karunakara, N Kumar, KS Murthy, R Tripathi, RM This paper reports the results of systematic studies aimed at generating a baseline database on the radiation levels and radionuclide distribution in the Gogi region, which has been identified as a prospective uranium mining region. A total of 39 villages in a 0-30 km radius zone of the Gogi region were covered under this study. The ambient gamma absorbed dose rates were measured using portable gamma dosimeters. The activity concentrations of <sup>226</sup> Ra, <sup>232</sup> Th, and <sup>40</sup> K in the soil samples were measured by the HPGe gamma spectrometry method. The ambient gamma absorbed dose rate varied in the range of 126-428 nGy h <sup>-1</sup> , with a median value of 143 nGy h <sup>-1</sup> . The activities of <sup>226</sup> Ra, <sup>232</sup> Th, and <sup>40</sup> K in the soil varied in the range of 5-176 Bq kg <sup>-1</sup> , 9-687 Bq kg <sup>-1</sup> , and 81-1493 Bq kg <sup>-1</sup> , with the corresponding median values of 36 Bq kg <sup>-1</sup> , 85 Bq kg <sup>-1</sup> , and 859 Bq kg <sup>-1</sup> , respectively. The study showed a highly non-uniform distribution of primordial radionuclides in the soil, with activity concentrations varying significantly within a small area. The results observed in the present study were compared with the literature values reported for other parts of India and the worldwide average values, and discussed. Medknow Publications 2011-10-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2011/34/4/267/106196 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:106200 2011-10-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Measurement of natural activities of <sup>238</sup> U, <sup>232</sup> th and <sup>40</sup> k in tin ore Mansour, NA Tin ore is widely used in many industrial purposes. Such as tin ore contain natural radioactive nuclides at various concentrations. If this ore contain high concentrations of natural radioactive nuclides, workers handling them might be exposed to significant levels of radiation. Therefore it is important to determine the radioactive nuclides in this ore. The natural radionuclides ( <sup>238</sup> U, <sup>232</sup> Th and <sup>40</sup> K) and their daughter products contents of tin ore have been estimated in gamma-ray spectrometry and their levels using 70% Hyper-Pure` Germanium (HPGe) detector. The mean activities due to the three radionuclides ( <sup>238</sup> U, <sup>232</sup> Th and <sup>40</sup> K) were found to be 40 ± 3, 19 ± 2.2 and 97 ± 19 Bqkg<sup>−1</sup> , respectively. The radium equivalent activity varied from 77.87 ± 11-12.03 ± .27 Bqkg<sup>−1</sup> . The representative external hazard index values for the corresponding Tin Ore are also estimated. The results of this assessment obtained by the gamma-ray spectroscopic analysis, have indicated that the levels of natural radioactivity were lower than the international recommended limits. Medknow Publications 2011-10-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2011/34/4/270/106200 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:106205 2011-10-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Natural radioactivity in the volcanic field north of Sana'a, Yemen Saleh, EE El-Mageed, AI El-Kamel, AH Abbady, A Harb, S The level of natural radioactivity in rocks and soil of 32 samples collected from locations at North Sana'a in Yemen was measured. Concentrations of radionuclides in rocks and soils samples were determined by gamma-ray spectrometer using HPGe detector with specially designed shield. The average radioactivity concentrations of <sup>226</sup> Ra, <sup>232</sup> Th and <sup>40</sup> K were determined and expressed in Bq kg<sup>−1</sup> . The results showed that these radionuclides were present in concentrations of 21.79 ± 3.1, 19.5 ± 2.6 and 399.3 ± 16 Bq kg<sup>−1</sup> , respectively, for rocks. For soil, the corresponding values were 48.2 ± 4.4, 41.7 ± 4.5 and 939.1 ± 36 Bq kg<sup>−1</sup> . Also, the radiological hazard of the natural radionuclides content, radium equivalent activity, total dose rates, external hazard index and gamma activity concentration index of the (rocks/soils) samples in the area under consideration were calculated. The data were discussed and compared with those given in the literature. Medknow Publications 2011-10-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2011/34/4/275/106205 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:106206 2011-10-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
News and Information Medknow Publications 2011-10-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2011/34/4/282/106206 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:111401 2012-01-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
The new dose limit for the lens of the eye and its implications Bhatt, BC Medknow Publications 2012-01-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2012/35/1/1/111401 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:111404 2012-01-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
A comparative study of <sup>232</sup> Th and <sup>238</sup> U activity estimation in soil samples by gamma spectrometry and neutron activation analysis technique Anilkumar, R Anilkumar, S Narayani, K Babu, D Sharma, DN Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a well-established analytical technique. It has many advantages as compared to the other commonly used techniques. NAA can be performed in a variety of ways depending on the element, its activity level in the sample, interference from the sample matrix and other elements, etc., This technique is used to get high analytical sensitivity and low detection limits (ppm to ppb). The high sensitivity is due to the irradiation at high neutron flux available from the research reactors and the activity measurement is done using high resolution HPGe detectors. In this paper, the activity estimation of soil samples using neutron activation and direct gamma spectrometry methods are compared. Even though the weights of samples considered and samples preparation methods are different for these two methods, the estimated activity values are comparable. Medknow Publications 2012-01-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2012/35/1/14/111404 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:111405 2012-01-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Occupational exposures in industrial application of radiation during 1999-2008 Sanaye, SS Baburajan, S Pawar, SG Nalawade, SK Sapra, BK Radiation sources are used in various industrial applications like industrial radiography, industrial irradiation, industrial fluoroscopy, nucleonic gauges, well logging etc.. Gamma, beta X-ray as well as neutron sources are used for various applications. Number of radiation workers in this field has increased over the years. Due to operating conditions prevailing during the exposure as well as the strength of the sources used in some of the applications, radiation protection plays an important role in this field. Analysis of doses received by radiation workers in industry provides information on trends of doses as well as adequateness of radiation protection practices followed in this sector. In India, National Occupational Dose Registry System (NODRS) of Radiological Physics and Advisory Division (RPAD), Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) maintains personnel dose information of monitored radiation workers in the country. Analysis of occupational dose data of industrial radiation workers for last 10 years, i.e., 1999-2008 has been presented in this paper. It is observed that even though there is an increase in monitored radiation workers, percentage of persons receiving radiation exposure has come down during this period. There is also a decrease in the average annual dose as well as the collective dose. Further analysis of sub-categories shows that industrial radiography operations are the main contributor for collective dose (about 77%) followed by well logging and industrial X-ray operations (about 8% each). Thus, in addition to industrial radiography, attention is also to be given to operations in these areas. Medknow Publications 2012-01-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2012/35/1/17/111405 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:111406 2012-01-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Radiological impact of soil as a source of building material Otoo, F Darko, EO Emi-Reynolds, G Andam, AB Adukpo, OK The radiological hazards associated with naturally occurring radioactive materials in soil samples from different geological locations have been studied using gamma spectrometry. The average activity concentration of <sup>226</sup> Ra, <sup>232</sup> Th, and <sup>40</sup> K were (16.4-74.6 Bq/kg), (12.0-44.7 Bq/kg), and (215.4-498.6 Bq/kg). The highest values of <sup>226</sup> Ra and <sup>232</sup> Th occurred in Dodowa and Oyibi respectively. The <sup>40</sup> K recorded the highest activity concentration of 498.6 Bq/kg, measured in soil from McCarthy Hills. The radium equivalent activity (Ra <sub>eq</sub> ; 46.9-135.7 Bq/kg), the internal hazards index (H <sub>in</sub> ; 0.29-0.52) the external hazard index (H <sub>ex</sub> ; 0.22-0.37), the absorbed dose rate in air (23.3-75.8 nGy/h), and the annual effective dose (E <sub>T</sub> ) (44.4-79.4 uSv/y) were evaluated to assess the radiation hazard to the populace living in dwellings made of these soil as a building material. The results obtained were found to be within the acceptable limits for public exposure control recommended by the European Commission, International Commission on Radiological Protection, and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development-Nuclear Energy Agency. Medknow Publications 2012-01-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2012/35/1/22/111406 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:111407 2012-01-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Study on natural radioactive elements in soil and rock samples around Mandya district, India Shivakumara, BC Paramesh, L Shashikumar, TS Chandrashekara, MS Context: The soil is a complex mixture of different compounds and rocks. In the natural environment, it is an important source of exposure to radiation due to naturally occurring, gamma emitting radionuclides which include <sup>226</sup> Ra, <sup>232</sup> Th and <sup>40</sup> K present in the soil. Aims: The study of distribution of these radionuclides in soil and rock is of great importance for radiation protection and measurements. Materials and Methods: The activity concentrations of <sup>226</sup> Ra, <sup>232</sup> Th, and <sup>40</sup> K in soil and rock samples collected in Mandya District, Karnataka state, India have been measured by gamma ray spectrometry. Results: The average activity concentrations of <sup>226</sup> Ra, <sup>232</sup> Th, and <sup>40</sup> K (Bq/kg) are found to be 40.2, 62.3, and 317.5 Bq/kg, respectively, in soil samples and 30.5, 34.4, and 700.2 Bq/kg, respectively, in rock samples. Conclusion: The concentrations of radionuclides in soil samples are found to higher than in rock samples. The concentrations of radionuclides in soil and rock samples in the study area are slightly higher than Indian average and world average values Medknow Publications 2012-01-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2012/35/1/29/111407 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:111408 2012-01-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Study on the response of the ferrous ammonium sulfate - cupric sulfate dosimetry system of different salt concentrations at gamma chambers and radiation processing plant Ghosh, S Khedkar, K Kashid, S Chakraborty, P Background and Aim: Gamma radiation is commercially used in food preservation by extending shelf life and the success of radiation preservation of food depends upon the ability of the processor of successful measurement of the radiation dose delivered to the foods. Several dosimeters are already used in radiation processing plant to measure the delivered dose. The aim of the present study was to develop a simple and appropriate chemical dosimetry system covering a wide dose range (1-30kGy) of food irradiation. Materials and Methods: The response of the ferrous ammonium sulfate (Fe(NH <sub>4</sub> ) <sub>2</sub> (SO <sub>4</sub> ) <sub>2</sub> ,6H <sub>2</sub> O) - cupric sulfate (CuSO <sub>4</sub> ,5H <sub>2</sub> O) dosimetry system was studied at two different gamma chambers of GC-5000 and GC-900 and at a radiation processing plant with four different salt concentrations and at the dose range of 1-30kGy. Results and Discussion: The system with highest salt concentration i.e. with 6x0.001mmol Fe(NH <sub>4</sub> ) <sub>2</sub> (SO <sub>4</sub> ) <sub>2</sub> ,6H <sub>2</sub> O + 6x0.01mmol CuSO <sub>4</sub> ,5H <sub>2</sub> O showed linear response in the applied dose range of 1kGy to 30kGy. Good reproducibility of the system was observed at both GC-5000 and GC-900 with different dose rate and irradiation temperature. Routine dosimetry and dose mapping at radiation processing plant with the standard Ceric-cerous dosimetry system with same salt concentration also showed good agreement with ΁5% difference. The system was stable upto 7 days before and after irradiation at 4 <sup>o</sup> C and at darkness. The estimated overall precision for the dose assessment over the dose range of interest was about ΁2% irrespective of the dose rate and irradiation temperature. Conclusion: The ferrous ammonium sulfate (Fe(NH <sub>4</sub> ) <sub>2</sub> (SO <sub>4</sub> ) <sub>2</sub> ,6H <sub>2</sub> O) - cupric sulfate (CuSO <sub>4</sub> ,5H <sub>2</sub> O) dosimetry system with highest salt concentration i.e. with 6x0.001mmol Fe(NH <sub>4</sub> ) <sub>2</sub> (SO <sub>4</sub> ) <sub>2</sub> ,6H <sub>2</sub> O + 6x0.01mmol CuSO <sub>4</sub> ,5H <sub>2</sub> O can be successfully used as chemical dosimeters in the dose range of 1-30kGy. Medknow Publications 2012-01-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2012/35/1/34/111408 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:111402 2012-01-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
The derived radiological parameters associated with beach mineral sand deposits prevail in the south west coastal regions of India Manian, CG Perumal, SP The distribution of natural radioactivity in beach sand samples collected from naturally high background radiation areas of south west coast of Tamil Nadu in India is studied by gamma spectrometry. The activity concentration of radionuclide collected from the study area ranges from 18.9 ± 4.6 Bq/kg to 260.5 ± 29.4 Bq/kg for <sup>226</sup> Ra, 534.5 ± 34.0 Bq/kg to 2961.4 ± 33.7 Bq/kg for <sup>232</sup> Th, and 40.6 ± 7.2 Bq/kg to 148.7 ± 17.9 Bq/kg for <sup>40</sup> K. The measured activity of <sup>226</sup> Ra and <sup>232</sup> Th in soil samples collected from the study area is higher than the activity of <sup>40</sup> K. The external hazard index, internal hazard index, absorbed dose rate, and annual effective dose equivalent are calculated and tabulated. It is found that all the evaluated values are higher than the safe limit. The annual effective dose of radiation ranges from 0.41 mSv to 2.35 mSv due to naturally occurring radionuclide. Medknow Publications 2012-01-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2012/35/1/4/111402 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:111409 2012-01-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Natural radioactivity and dose rates for soil samples around Tiruchirapalli, South India using γ-ray spectrometry Senthilkumar, B Manikandan, S Musthafa, MS The activity concentrations and the gamma-absorbed dose rates of the naturally occurring radionuclides <sup>226</sup> Ra, <sup>232</sup> Th, and <sup>40</sup> K were determined for 40 soil samples collected from Tiruchirapalli, South India, using g-ray spectrometry. The average activity concentrations of <sup>226</sup> Ra, <sup>232</sup> Th, and <sup>40</sup> K in the soil samples were found to be 29.9, 39.0, and 369.7 Bq kg<sup>−1</sup> , respectively. The measured activity concentrations of both <sup>226</sup> Ra and <sup>40</sup> K in the soil were lower than the world average, whereas, the activity of <sup>232</sup> Th was higher than the world average. The concentrations of these radionuclides were also compared with the average activity of the Indian soil. The radiological hazard index was calculated and compared with the internationally approved values. The average external absorbed gamma dose rate was observed to be 79.9 nGy h<sup>−1</sup> , with a corresponding average annual effective dose of 97.9 mSv y<sup>−1</sup> , which was above the world average values. The values of Ra <sub>eq</sub> and H <sub>ex</sub> were found to be within the criterion limit, whereas, the radioactivity level index ( I<sub>g</sub>) and total gamma dose rate were above the worldwide average values. Medknow Publications 2012-01-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2012/35/1/43/111409 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:111410 2012-01-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Bulk laundry monitoring system Thakur, VM Jain, A Verma, A Rande, NR Anilkumar, S Babu, D Sharma, DN Protective wear (like boiler suits, hand gloves etc.) is necessary while handling radioactive material in plants/laboratories. During the course of work, it is quite possible that protective wear may get contaminated. These protective wear are packed in laundry bags and send to Decontamination Centre (DC) for washing. There is a need for monitoring the laundry bags at the time of receipt, as well as before dispatch to respective locations to comply with AERB guidelines. To avoid cross contamination during wash cycle, contaminated bags (>0.5 mR/h on surface) need to be segregated. Present paper describes the development of such system for monitoring surface dose rate on bags at the time of receipt. Medknow Publications 2012-01-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2012/35/1/52/111410 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:111411 2012-01-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Basis for the ICRP dose limits Pushparaja Medknow Publications 2012-01-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2012/35/1/55/111411 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:111403 2012-01-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Studies on radon concentration in aqueous samples at Mysore city, India Rajesh, BM Chandrashekara, MS Nagaraja, P Paramesh, L Context: Natural radionuclides are wide spread in air, water, soil, plants and in consequence in the human diet. <sup>222</sup> Ra is the daughter product of <sup>226</sup> Ra which belongs to <sup>238</sup> U radioactive series. Aims: Radon enters the human body through ingestion of water and inhalation. Since alpha emitters are the most dangerous, studies on water containing dissolved radon are very important. Materials and Methods: The activity concentration of <sup>222</sup> Ra has been analyzed in water samples collected from lakes, open wells, drilled wells, taps and rivers in and around Mysore city, Karnataka State, India using radon emanometric technique. Results: The present study shows a wide range of radon concentration in water, which varies from below detection limit to 643.9 BqL <sup>-1</sup> with a median of 15.8 BqL <sup>-1</sup>. An annual effective dose with a median of 0.043 μSv y<sup>-1</sup> was estimated from the ingestion of <sup>222</sup> Ra through water. Conclusions: <sup>222</sup> Rn concentration in 80% of bore-well water samples are higher than the maximum acceptable contaminant level of 11.1 BqL <sup>-1</sup> as prescribed by the environmental protection agency. Medknow Publications 2012-01-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2012/35/1/9/111403 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:112354 2012-04-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
LNT theory is still not experimentally proved! Pushparaja Medknow Publications 2012-04-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2012/35/2/100/112354 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:112356 2012-04-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Recent developments in internal dosimetry Patni, HK Medknow Publications 2012-04-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2012/35/2/101/112356 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:112337 2012-04-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Radioactivity in human body and its detection Rao, DD Medknow Publications 2012-04-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2012/35/2/57/112337 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:112338 2012-04-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Residential radon exposure in some areas of Bangalore city, India Ashok, GV Nagaiah, N Ambika, MR Sathish, LA Karunakara, N Background: Two isotopes, <sup>222</sup> Rn and <sup>220</sup> Rn of the natural radioactive gas radon are generally of radiological importance. About half of the total radiation effective dose to the general public is due to the irradiation of the lungs by alpha particles following the inhalation of radon decay products. In view of this, <sup>222</sup> Rn and <sup>220</sup> Rn measurements were carried out for a period of 1 year in about 50 dwellings belonging to different residential areas of Bangalore city. The results obtained were systematically analysed and discussed. Materials and Methods: <sup>222</sup> Rn and <sup>220</sup> Rn measurements were carried using Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors. The gamma exposure rate measurements were also carried out in all the dwellings using a G M tube based Environmental Radiation Dosimeter. Results: The concentration of <sup>222</sup> Rn and <sup>220</sup> Rn was found to be highest in the dwellings having mud flooring (Bare) and lowest in the dwellings having mosaic flooring. The geometric mean values of the concentrations of <sup>222</sup> Rn and <sup>220</sup> Rn were found to be 24.1 ± 8.3 and 24.5 ± 10.8 Bq m <sup>-3</sup> respectively. The annual mean value of the gamma absorbed dose rate is found to be 175.8 nGy y <sup>-1</sup> . Conclusion: The mean value of radon concentration is well within the indian average (42 Bq m <sup>-3</sup> ) and world average (40 Bq m <sup>-3</sup> ) values. The mean effective dose was found to be 1.19 mSv y <sup>-1</sup> and is well within the action level as prescribed by ICRP-65. Medknow Publications 2012-04-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2012/35/2/59/112338 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:112340 2012-04-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Milk minerals in cow milk with special reference to elevated calcium and its radiological implications Ross, EM Rajan, MP Wesley, SG Context: In Kudankulam, the South Eastern tip of India, a nuclear power station is under construction. Various studies have been carried out around this project site; however, there is no literature pertaining to the minerals in cow milk samples in this region. Further, various minerals in cow milk are analogs of natural and anthropogenic radionuclides and a study on stable elements would help to assess the behavior of their radioactive counterparts. Materials and Methods: Milk samples (n = 25) from the study area were analyzed for macro-minerals (potassium [K], magnesium [Mg] and calcium [Ca]) and micro-minerals (zinc [Zn], copper [Cu] and manganese [Mn]) using a Z5000 series Hitachi atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The performance of the method was evaluated by using an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) reference material, i.e., the fish tissue homogenate (IAEA-407). Results: The concentration values of major and trace minerals in the milk samples were in the order Ca > K > Mg and Zn > Cu > Mn, respectively. Conclusion: The high-water Ca levels and the prevailing tropical semi-arid climatic conditions seem to be the reasons for the high-Ca levels observed in the investigated milk samples. A CaCO3 bed is present in this area and lime is being excavated by cement industries and it is also evident from the literature that elevated Ca levels would have an immense impact on the levels of natural and fall out radionuclides in cow milk. Medknow Publications 2012-04-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2012/35/2/64/112340 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:112342 2012-04-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Experience during the monitoring of inactive scrap for the detection of inadvertent presence of radioactivity Sharma, R Kumar, A Vikas Singh, R Patra, RP Kumar, V Pradeepkumar, KS Context: The paper describes about the experience gained during the radiation monitoring of inactive scrap generated at various nuclear facilities. This type surveillance is carried out to prevent the spread of radioactivity in public domain and also as requirement by regulatory authorities. Aim: The inspection and certification of scrap material from Nuclear facilities is a regulatory requirement to ensure that no radioactive material reaches public domain. This paper describes the methodology and experience in detection of radioactivity at inactive Scrap monitoring facility. Materials and Methods: Inactive scraps (metallic and non metallic) generated from various nuclear facilities of BARC, Trombay is dispatched to Trombay Village Store (TVS) for temporary storage before auction to the public. The monitoring at the facility includes visual inspection and radiation measurement before loading the scrap in the truck. An online PC based monitoring system and portable monitoring instruments in the range (nSv/h-μSv/h) are used to carry out radiation monitoring of inactive scrap loaded in a vehicle. Results: Radioactive source of high activity with potential for serious environmental hazard has not been detected, but few cases of presence of radioactive /contaminated material (MS plate/equipments with low level of Cs-137 contamination) have been detected and identified using portable gamma spectrometer. Conclusion: Implementation of strict regulatory measures and radiation monitoring at nuclear facilities can minimize the probability of radioactive material reaching the public domain. The methodology followed for monitoring of inactive scrap is found to be effective even for detection of presence of radioactivity in scrap if any. Medknow Publications 2012-04-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2012/35/2/69/112342 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:112344 2012-04-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Measurement of gamma natural background radiation in Chamaraja Nagar district, Karnataka state, India Nagaraju, KM Chandrashekara, MS Paramesh, L Background: All objects in nature are exposed to ionizing radiation emitted by primordial radionuclides and cosmogenic radionuclides due to cosmic rays, the influence of which on living beings is very imminent and important to study. The amount of this background radiation received by an individual depends on altitude, latitude type of building and the building construction materials. Materials and Methods: In the present study, measurements of natural background radiation were made in the schools, temples, dwellings, and hill stations etc., in Chamaraja Nagar District, Karnataka State, India by using Environmental Dosimeter technique. Results and Conclusion: The absorbed dose rate in dwellings of different villages in this region varies from 98.3 ± 7.1 to 708.2 ± 59.3 nGyh<sup>−1</sup> with an average of 291.8 ± 23.4 nGyh<sup>−1</sup> , whereas in temples it varies from 71.4 ± 5.2 to 589.0 ± 46.3 nGyh<sup>−1</sup> with an average of 240.5 ± 19.2 nGyh<sup>−1</sup> . Medknow Publications 2012-04-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2012/35/2/73/112344 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:112345 2012-04-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Estimation of uranium isotope in urine samples using extraction chromatography resin Thakur, SS Yadav, J Rao, D Introduction: Internal exposure monitoring for alpha emitting radionuclides is carried out by bioassay samples analysis. For occupational radiation workers who handle uranium in reprocessing or fuel fabrication facilities, there exist a possibility of internal exposure and urine assay is the preferred method for monitoring such exposure. Materials and Methods: Separation of Uranium is carried out by extraction chromatography using diamyl amyl phosphonate (U/TEVA) resin. This resin contains diamyl amyl phosphonate extractant supported on inert Amberlite XAD-7 (an acrylic ester) resin.The electrodeposited samples are counted using octet alpha spectrometery. Results and Discussion: The analysis time involved from sample loading to stripping is 2 h compared with the 3.5 h involved in conventional ion exchange method. The radiochemical yield was found in the range of 69-91%. Minimum detectable activity for uranium estimation for 3,60,000 s counting time at an average percentage recovery of 82 ΁ 8 works out to 0.21 mBq/d. Conclusion: The technique gives good and consistent radiochemical yield of 82% on repeated use of the chromatographic column when compared with ion exchange technique. Analysis time involved from sample loading to stripping using UTEVA is 2 h compared with the time involved of 3.5 h by the conventional ion exchange method. Medknow Publications 2012-04-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2012/35/2/77/112345 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:112347 2012-04-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Estimation of intake by maximum likelihood method using follow up measurements of <sup>131</sup> I thyroidal burden Ghare, VP Patni, HK Akar, DK Rao, DD Context: <sup>131</sup> I is widely used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Since thyroid is the main deposition site for <sup>131</sup> I, so it can be detected by direct thyroid monitoring. Aim: This work presents results of follow-up measurements of an individual who was internally contaminated with <sup>131</sup> I with injected activity being determined by maximum likelihood method. Importance of dose per unit content is also shown in this study. Materials and Methods: The whole body monitoring system available in Radiation Safety Systems Division of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre is calibrated for estimation of <sup>131</sup> I in the thyroid of radiation worker using BOttle MAnnikin Absorber (BOMAB) phantom with neck part being replaced by American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) neck. Results: The estimated intake was found to be 89.24 kBq and the committed effective dose is calculated as 1.96 mSv. The data are analyzed with autocorrelation and Chi-square test to establish goodness of fit with log-normal distribution. Conclusion: The overestimation of thyroid activity by use of mid axial hole in BOMAB phantom is removed by using ANSI/IAEA neck phantom. Measured retained thyroidal data on different days following the intake has closely fitted to the ICRP predicted retained activity. Medknow Publications 2012-04-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2012/35/2/80/112347 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:112350 2012-04-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Measurement of radon activity in soil samples of some selected towns across the Lake Bosumtwi basin, Ghana Kansaana, C Aba, AB Darko, EO Adukpo, OK Faanu, A Background: The potential hazard of radiation exposures to radon and its daughter products from natural background has been highlighted in the world of scientific press and has become a matter of concern. The Lake Bosumtwi is one of the interesting research areas in Ghana due to the geological nature of the area, and also of its great importance based on the different uses of the lake and its surroundings. There is therefore the need to investigate the levels of radon activity in soil samples around Lake Bosomtwi basin as part of the national effort to establish base line data of radon levels in Ghana. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted to measure the levels of radon activity in soil samples within the lake Bosomtwi basin. Samples were collected from five selected villages around the lake at depths of 10 cm and 20 cm. The Role's Method was employed and measurements were made using specific cell counters. The measurements were performed with a Radon Degassing Unit (RDU-200) and a Radon Detector Analyzer (RDA-200). The calculated cell efficiency was obtained as 0.55 cpm/dpm. Results: The average radon concentrations at the depths were calculated and the maximum concentration for the 10 cm depth was obtained from Tepaso with a value of 4801.71±678 Bq/m <sup>3</sup> and the minimum concentration was obtained from Abonu with a value of 3887.07±815 Bq/m <sup>3</sup> . The maximum and minimum concentrations for the 20 cm depth were obtained from Tepaso and Kusuasi with values of 5602.10±943 Bq/m <sup>3</sup> and 4877.93±404 Bq/m <sup>3</sup> respectively. The overall average radon concentration obtained was 4745.31±559 Bq/m <sup>3</sup> . The results obtained were high when compared with results from previous studies. The values obtained are less than the World Health Organization's acceptable level for outdoor radon activity which is quoted as 9250 Bq/m <sup>3</sup> and hence the public are not exposed to any significant radiological health hazard in these areas. Conclusions: The radon concentration at the depth of 20 cm was found to be higher than the 10 cm depth and this shows that radon gas in soil increases with depth. The values obtained are less than the World Health Organization's acceptable level for outdoor radon activity and life activities would not be at risk in these areas. Medknow Publications 2012-04-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2012/35/2/84/112350 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:112351 2012-04-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Environmental radioactivity evaluation in the coastal stretch of Bay of Bengal from Pondycherry to Velanganni (South East coast of India) Satheeshkumar, G Hameed, PS Pillai, GS Anbusaravanan, N Background: Since the Madras Atomic Power Station, Kalpakkam and Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant, Kudankulam are sited in Bay of Bengal coast, radiological study of this coastal environment is imperative to assess the impact of operation of nuclear power plant, if any, on the radioactivity profile of the coast. Materials and Methods: In the present study the environmental radioactivity was evaluated by measuring activity concentrations of primordial radionuclides namely <sup>238</sup> U, <sup>232</sup> Th and <sup>40</sup> K. in the beach sand samples using high purity germanium gamma ray spectrometry. 10 sampling stations were fixed along a 290 km coastal stretch of Bay of Bengal from Pondycherry to Velangannni. Results: The activity concentration of <sup>238</sup> U is always much less than that of <sup>232</sup> Th and <sup>40</sup> K and it ranged from 9 Bq/kg (Pondicherry coast) to 93 Bq/kg (Karaikal coast). However, <sup>232</sup> Th concentration fluctuated from 12 Bq/kg (Pichavaram Mangrove) to 1075 Bq/kg (Karaikal coast). The activity concentration of <sup>40</sup> K varied within a narrow range from 162 Bq/kg to 474 Bq/kg. The distribution of primordial radioactivity was non-uniform along the entire stretch of Bay of Bengal. The elevated levels of <sup>232</sup> Th were recorded in Karaikal coast (S7) (1075 Bq/kg), Tirumullaivasal coast (S4) (215 Bq/kg), and Nagapattinam coast (S9) (146 Bq/kg) and attributed to the presence of thorium-rich monazite as beach placer in coastal sands. Conclusion: The total absorbed gamma dose contributed by the activity of <sup>238</sup> U, <sup>232</sup> Th, and <sup>40</sup> K varied between 29 nGy/h and 308 nGy/h with a GM value of 64.4 nGy/h. Similarly, the annual effective dose recorded for Bay of Bengal ranged from 0.04 mSv/year to 0.38 mSv/year, indicating that the Bay of Bengal, in general, falls under Normal Background Radiation Area. Medknow Publications 2012-04-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2012/35/2/90/112351 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:112353 2012-04-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Simultaneous recording of high-energy photon spectrum using phoswich detector Manohari, M Mathiyarasu, R Rajagopal, V Venkatraman, B Phoswich detector with its pulse shape discrimination (PSD) electronics is being used for estimating actinides in lung as part of in vivo monitoring. In this application, only the signals from thin NaI (low energy measurement) are effectively utilized. The high-energy gamma interactions in thick CsI portion of phoswich are merely used for background reduction in the low-energy regions. The present PSD electronics was suitably modified; both lower and higher energy photon spectra from a single phoswich detector are recorded simultaneously. This feature helps in identifying any fission product gamma emitters and also detects the increase in background during lung counting measurements. This paper outlines the modifications incorporated in the PSD electronics and the suitability of phoswich detector as a gamma ray spectrometer. The typical spectrometric characteristics of the detector such as energy linearity, full width at half-maximum, point source efficiency, and so on, estimated through experiments, and some of the salient results are highlighted. Medknow Publications 2012-04-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2012/35/2/96/112353 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:117661 2012-07-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Prospective survey of accelerator safety Sarkar, PK Medknow Publications 2012-07-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2012/35/3/103/117661 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:117663 2012-07-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Evaluation of internal hazards in medical cyclotrons Iyer, MR A large number of medical cyclotrons of various types and makes are now in operation in India and their number is ever increasing. A careful analysis of the various safety issues particularly in case of possible accidental conditions is required for a realistic evaluation of their impact. Apart from the external dose involved, internal dose issues under normal operation and in case of abnormal operational conditions such as target rupture, accidents, spills, etc., which are generally neglected also need evaluation. There is a need for carrying out worst scenario analysis and the possible dose consequences to the operating staff as well as the public due to releases through the stack. The paper carries out an analysis for a typical release of activity into the vault environment and the dose implications. Along with any measured air activity measurements in the vault of operating cyclotrons this would resolve the issue one way or other. During radio pharmaceutical processing a substantial fraction of the volatile positron emitting radiopharmaceuticals are released into the atmosphere. In some cyclotrons a provision of an air trap for holding the air is mentioned. Analysis of possible dose to a member of the public using typical release rates is also presented and shown to be not negligible. A short review of such analysis in literature is carried out to show that the possible internal dose consequences cannot be ruled out and need to be addressed to in the safety analysis of these facilities for regulatory controls. Methods for proper calibration of stack monitors are indicated. In case of location of medical cyclotrons in crowded areas replete with high rise buildings, it may be necessary "to insure engineered safety features to ensure zero discharges from the machines." Medknow Publications 2012-07-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2012/35/3/105/117663 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:117665 2012-07-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Overview of experimental works on secondary particle production and transport by high-energy particle beams Nakamura, T This overview gives a brief summary on the experimental results on three topics: (1) Thick target neutron yields produced by protons, deuterons, He and heavier ions having wide energy range from MeV to GeV, (2) spallation products production data together with induced activities by proton to U ion and (3) benchmark experiments on neutron shielding using various accelerators of MeV to GeV energies. These three items are essentially important for radiation safety of accelerator facility. Medknow Publications 2012-07-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2012/35/3/111/117665 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:117668 2012-07-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Radiation safety issues relevant to proton therapy and radioisotope production medical cyclotrons Mukherjee, B Medical cyclotrons are now constructed as turnkey facilities at nuclear medicine clinics, specialised particle therapy facilities and radioisotope production centres. Most medical cyclotrons usually accelerate protons to high energies and could be divided mainly in two categories: (a) Low energy (E <sub>P</sub> = 15-30 MeV) machines, dedicated for medical positron emission tomography and single photon emission computer tomography radioisotope production and (b) High energy (E <sub>P</sub> = 100-250 MeV) machines, predominantly used for radiotherapy of malignant tumours. Parasitic gamma and neutron radiation are produced during the operation of medical cyclotrons. Furthermore, high level of gamma radiation produced by the activated cyclotron components could impose radiation exposure to maintenance crew. Hence, radiation safety is imperative to safe and reliable operation of medical cyclotron facilities. A sound operational health physics procedure assures the minimisation of radiation exposure to patients and members of the public abiding the regulatory guidelines. This paper highlights the important radiation safety aspects related to safe operation of proton therapy and radioisotope production medical cyclotrons. Medknow Publications 2012-07-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2012/35/3/126/117668 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:117670 2012-07-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Radiation safety for electron accelerators: Synchrotron radiation facility Asano, Y Radiation safety is reviewed for electron accelerators, mainly synchrotron radiation facilities. Accelerator radiation safety systems consist on safety interlock system, radiation shielding and radiation monitoring. These systems depend strongly on the characteristics of machines such as the maximum electron energy. In this paper, conceptual safety systems and radiation sources for synchrotron radiation facilities are overviewed including the evaluation methods of shielding. Medknow Publications 2012-07-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2012/35/3/135/117670 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:117672 2012-07-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Radiological safety aspects of an accelerator driven system Sunil, C Accelerator driven systems (ADS) have the potential to generate nuclear power by coupling a high energy high current proton accelerator to a sub-critical nuclear reactor. The system has several advantages such as inherent safety from a runaway chain reaction, independence of the reactivity from delayed neutrons, resistance to nuclear proliferation, ability to transmute long lived minor actinides and fission products and, to convert thorium to <sup>233</sup> U. The radiological safety aspects of a typical ADS are discussed in which lead bismuth eutectic (LBE) is the spallation target as well as the coolant. In the irradiated target, residual activity is a major concern, particularly the amount of <sup>210</sup> Po. The time evolution of the major isotopes present in LBE is studied along with the prevailing residual gamma dose rates. Few issues that may surface while coupling a reactor to an accelerator are also discussed. Medknow Publications 2012-07-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2012/35/3/145/117672 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:117673 2012-07-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Accelerator radiation protection: Recourse to nuclear reaction models Nandy, M Nuclear reaction models play a very crucial role in theoretical estimation of radiation environment in accelerator facilities where experimental data are scantily available. In this paper, we discuss the exciton and hybrid models for pre-equilibrium reaction, the Weiskopf-Ewing formalism for compound nuclear emissions and quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) model for spallation reactions. The choice of Fermi gas or Gilbert Cameron level density results in a variation of 21% in the neutron yield from p + Cu reaction at 20 MeV. The surface effects, which are more pronounced at higher energies influence the organ absorbed dose at most to 5% even at 60 MeV for the same reaction. The code EMPIRE and the hybrid model code ALICE give a reasonable estimate of dose and induced activity in proton accelerator facilities up to about 200 MeV until when pion production is not significant. The code HION can be a preferred choice for neutron dose simulation in low energy heavy ion (HI) accelerators. However, the model needs improvement for more accurate estimation of the angular distribution. QMD model can be used to estimate the induced activity and absorbed dose for proton and HI reactions at several hundreds of MeV to GeV per nucleon. Medknow Publications 2012-07-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2012/35/3/156/117673 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:117674 2012-07-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Deterministic and probabilistic analysis of safety in particle accelerators Sarkar, PK The complexity involved in accelerator safety is discussed. Starting with the estimation of the source term the discussion includes design of radiation shield, safety interlock systems. The requirement of probabilistic safety analysis of accelerators and accelerator driven systems with emphasis on human reliability analysis is stressed. Medknow Publications 2012-07-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2012/35/3/164/117674 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:121799 2013-01-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Challenge for the future: NORM Pushparaja Medknow Publications 2013-01-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2013/36/1/1/121799 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:121812 2013-01-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Radioactivity measurements in the environment of Chamaraja Nagar area, India Nagaraju, KM Chandrashekara, MS Rajesh, BM Paramesh, L The knowledge of distribution of radionuclides and radiation levels in the environment is important for assessing the effects of radiation exposure to human beings. Terrestrial radiation is due to the radionuclides present in different amounts in rocks, soils, building materials, water and atmosphere. Radon is the main natural radiation source of exposure of human beings and has been recognized as a carcinogenic gas. Radium ( <sup>226</sup> Ra) and its ultimate precursor uranium ( <sup>238</sup> U) are the parent sources of radon. In the present study, radon exhalation rate and radium concentration in soil and rock samples around Chamaraja Nagar area of Karnataka State, India are measured using solid state nuclear track detector's employing "can technique" and LR-115 Type-II detectors. The result from the present investigation shows that radium activity in rock sample varies from 2.9 to 39.5 Bq/kg with a geometric mean of 13.4 Bq/kg. Mass and surface exhalation rate of radon in rock samples varies from 8.0 to 119.7 mBq/kg/h with the geometric mean of 24.8 mBq/kg/h and 93.9-1787.3 mBq/m <sup>2</sup> /h with a geometric mean of 562.5 mBq/m <sup>2</sup> /h respectively. Radium concentration in soil samples has been found to vary from 3.6 to 34.1 Bq/kg with a geometric mean of 14.7 Bq/kg. The mass exhalation rate of radon in soil samples has been found to vary from 10.0 to 31.4 mBq/kg/h with a geometric mean of 18.6 mBq/kg/h. The surface exhalation rate of radon varies from 142 to 918.4 mBq/m <sup>2</sup> /h with a geometric mean of 391.5 mBq/m <sup>2</sup> /h. Medknow Publications 2013-01-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2013/36/1/10/121812 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:121814 2013-01-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
The Natural Radioactivity in groundwater from selected areas in Greater Accra region of Ghana by gross alpha and gross beta measurements Darko, EO Ndontchueng, MM Schandorf, C Akiti, TT Muhulo, AP Bam, E Gross alpha and gross beta in 26 groundwater samples from Adentan to Abokobi areas in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana were determined using Alpha/Beta counting system (Canberra iMatic <sup>TM</sup> ). The average activity concentrations of gross alpha and gross beta were 0.034 and 0.501 Bq/L for Adentan, and 0.066 and 0.470 Bq/L for Abokobi, respectively. The results obtained are below the guideline levels of gross alpha (0.5 Bq/L) and gross beta (1.0 Bq/L) in drinking water established by the World Health Organisation. These results show that consumption of groundwater for the study areas may not pose any significant radiological health hazards through ingestion to the population. Medknow Publications 2013-01-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2013/36/1/14/121814 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:121819 2013-01-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
The status of natural radioactivity and heavy metals pollution on soil at Assiut Zone in Central Upper-Egypt Uosif, MA Abuel-Fadl, KY Mostafa, AM Context: To examine the status of the environmental quality of the soils in Assiut zone in central Upper-Egypt, investigation was carried out to determine the concentration of natural radionuclides (radium [ <sup>226</sup> Ra], thorium [ <sup>232</sup> Th] and <sup>40</sup> K) and the contents of eight heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Ni, Fe, Mn, Cr, Cu, and Zn). Materials and Methods: The measurements of concentration of natural radionuclides were carried out by using the gamma spectrometry (NaI (Tl); 3× 3"). Results: The results indicate that the soil samples' radioactivity concentrations of <sup>226</sup> Ra, <sup>232</sup> Th, and <sup>40</sup> K were ranging from 10.4 ± 0.5 to 19 ± 1 Bq/kg; 6 ± 0.3-21 ± 3 Bq/kg and 103.6 ± 5-221 ± 10 Bq/kg respectively. The typical radiation doses (D <sub>o</sub> ), the external hazard index (H <sub>ex</sub> ) and annual effective dose rate values for the corresponding samples were also estimated. The concentration of heavy metals was measured by using the atomic absorption spectrometry method. Data were analyzed by using the statistical methods. The representative H <sub>ex</sub> values for the corresponding samples were also estimated. Generally, heavy metals and major elements concentration of the sediments were found decrease in sequence of Fe > Mg > pb > Zn > Cr > Cu > Ni > Cd. In some locations, the concentration for the investigated heavy metals exceeds the permissible limits recommended by the Canadian Environmental Quality Guidelines. The highest concentration of the most heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Ni, Cr, and Zn) was found in Arab Al-Madabegh region; the sewage irrigated zone. Whereas, the lowest ones was found in the not irrigated lands, which considered as a reference point of analyses. Conclusion: The maximum admitted concentrations of toxic heavy elements in the sensitive areas revealed to be exceed from three to thirty times than the non-irrigated zone. Medknow Publications 2013-01-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2013/36/1/20/121819 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:121821 2013-01-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Assessment of natural radioactivity and the associated hazards in some local cement types used in Yemen Farid, ME Saleh, EE Mansour, M Mohammed, AK The cement industry is considered as one of the basic industries that plays a significant role in the national economy of developing countries. Activity concentration of <sup>226</sup> Ra, <sup>232</sup> Th, and <sup>40</sup> K in 38 samples of local cement types from different Yemeni factories has been measured by using the gamma ray spectrometry and their mean values were in the ranges (25.18-40.39 Bq/kg), (14.6-24.75 Bq/kg) and (160.01-596.38 Bq/kg), respectively. The average values obtained for <sup>226</sup> Ra, <sup>232</sup> Th, and <sup>40</sup> K activity concentration in different types of cement are lower than the corresponding global values reported in United Nation Scientific Committee on the Effect of Atomic Radiation publications. The obtained results show that the averages of radiation hazard parameters for all types of local cement in the current study are lower than the acceptable level of 370 Bq/kg for radium equivalent, 1 for level index (Iγ), the external hazard index ≤ 1 and (59 nGy/h) for absorbed dose rate. The measured activity concentrations for these natural radionuclides were compared to the reported data for other countries. Therefore, the natural radioactivity of cement samples under study was lower than the recommended values in the established standard and hence safe for use in building constructions. Medknow Publications 2013-01-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2013/36/1/27/121821 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:121800 2013-01-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Geological significance of radon gas in soil and underground water: A case study of Nurpur area, District Kangra, Himachal Pradesh, India Sharma, DK Kumar, A Kumar, A Dhar, S Singh, S Remote sensing satellite data have been used to recognize structures having tectonic significance. Based on satellite data, lineament map of Nurpur and its adjoining area of District Kangra, Himachal Pradesh, has been generated. LR-115 solid state nuclear track detectors have been used for the measurement of soil gas radon at 71 different locations of the study area. Radon monitoring in underground water at 26 different locations of the study area has been carried by scintillometry. The results indicate zones of lineament density and tectonically induced radon in soil and underground water. The results are co-relatable with regional geology of the area. Medknow Publications 2013-01-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2013/36/1/3/121800 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:121824 2013-01-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Dissolved uranium, <sup>226</sup> Ra in the mine water effluent: A case study in Jaduguda Sethy, NK Jha, VN Sahoo, SK Ravi, PM Tripathi, RM Effluent water from uranium mines, mill tailings ponds were studied for dissolved radionuclide. The concentration of uranium and <sup>226</sup> Ra in untreated effluent water was found to be elevated. The concentration of dissolved radionuclide in the adjacent aquatic streams and river were found to be of lower than the authorized prescribed limit provided by Indian regulatory agencies. The removal process of dissolved radionuclide in the effluent treatment plant is found to be effective with an average decontamination efficiency of >95% for both uranium and <sup>226</sup> Ra. The uranium mining and ore processing activity has not significantly modified the aquatic environment due to effective effluent management system. Medknow Publications 2013-01-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2013/36/1/32/121824 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:121826 2013-01-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Effect of gamma irradiation on germination, growth, and biochemical parameters of Terminalia arjuna Roxb Akshatha Chandrashekar, KR Somashekarappa, HM Souframanien, J The impact of gamma irradiation on Terminalia arjuna (T. arjuna), one of the potent medicinal plants for cardiac disease is described in this article. The seeds of T. arjuna were irradiated with different doses of gamma radiation ranging from 0 to 200 Gy using the <sup>60</sup> Co source. The effect of gamma radiation on the growth and biochemical constituents were compared with the control plants. Germination speed at 25 Gy was found to be 0.65, which was double compared to the un-irradiated seeds. An increase in germination percentage, vigor index, and relative growth rate, in terms of dry weight was noticed at lower doses of the radiation treatment. The proline content increased with increasing doses. The chlorophyll content was found to have increased to 12.2 mg/g FW at 100 Gy compared to the control level of 8.44 mg/g FW. Increased phenolic content and radical scavenging capacity was observed at 25 and 150 Gy. Hence, lower doses of radiation treatment may be used to increase the germination, growth, and vigor, and also the enhancement of plant metabolites like proline and phenolics in T. arjuna. Medknow Publications 2013-01-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2013/36/1/38/121826 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:121828 2013-01-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
News and Information Pushparaja Medknow Publications 2013-01-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2013/36/1/45/121828 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:128864 2013-04-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Recycling of radiation sources in scrap - Radiation protection issues Pushparaja Medknow Publications 2013-04-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2013/36/2/51/128864 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:128867 2013-04-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Study on radiological contamination of ship scraps and environmental materials in ship breaking area of Chittagong, Bangladesh Barua, BS Uddin, MS Shariff, MA Kamal, M Rashid, MA The environmental radioactivity levels, both natural and anthropogenic, in the ship scrapped materials such as metal, rubber and foam and tree bark of ship breaking area of Bhatiari, Chittagong in the southern part of Bangladesh were analyzed by using a high purity germanium γ-ray spectrometry. The specific radioactivities of Radium (<sup>226</sup> Ra), Thorium (<sup>232</sup> Th) and Potassium (<sup>40</sup> K) were measured in the above samples. From the measured specific radioactivities of the above three natural radionuclides, the radium equivalent activity (Ra <sub>eq</sub>) and the external hazard index (H <sub>ex</sub>) were calculated. The natural radioactivity in scrapped metal collected from the engine of a ship is found to be a bit higher. In other samples, the Ra <sub>eq</sub> values were in the range of 21 → 145 Bq/kg and the H <sub>ex</sub> varied from 0.06 to 0.39, which indicates that the working environment of the ship breaking area of Chittagong is radiologically safe. Medknow Publications 2013-04-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2013/36/2/52/128867 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:128869 2013-04-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Risk assessment for recycling of radioactively contaminated scrap metal and its legal aspects Salem, EF Ali, AM Abdien, AK The presence of radioactive material in scrap metal (SM) or the semi-finished products of the metal recycling industries may cause health, economic, legal, and public acceptance problems. This paper deals with the risk assessment in the recycling of the contaminated SM, and its legal aspects, regulation, and control. The purpose of this study is to assess the risks from the recycling of SM and evaluate the Egyptian legal framework regarding the SM. This paper consists of three parts. First, radiation doses and the risks resulting from the recycling of SM and the reuse of surface-contaminated material and equipment are calculated using the RESRAD-RECYCLE computer code. Second, the legal aspects related to SM are reviewed, which deals with the Egyptian nuclear law no. 7 and its executive regulation, and the regulation of the SM. The role of Egyptian Nuclear and Radiation Regulatory Authority (ENRRA) in relation to this issue has also been reviewed. Third, analysis of the draft international non-binding code of conduct on the transboundary movement of radioactive material inadvertently incorporated into scrap metal and semi-finished products of the metal recycling industries has been done. Medknow Publications 2013-04-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2013/36/2/57/128869 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:128870 2013-04-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Analysis of radon concentration in drinking water in Hanumangarh district of Rajasthan, India Duggal, V Mehra, R Rani, A Radon levels were measured in drinking water samples collected from Hanumangarh district of Rajasthan, India. The measurements were performed by RAD7 an electronic radon detector manufactured by Durridge Company Inc. The radon concentration in these samples is found to vary from (1.6 ± 0.6) to (5.4 ± 0.7) Bq/l with a mean value of (3.3 ± 1.1) Bq/l. These recorded values are compared with the safe limit values recommended for drinking water by various health and environmental protection agencies. The recorded values of radon concentration are within the safe limit of 11 Bq/l recommended by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The annual effective dose for ingestion and inhalation is also evaluated in this research. The estimated total effective dose varies from 4.29 to 14.47 μSv/year. The total effective dose in all locations of the studied area is found to be within the safe limit (0.1 mSv/year) recommended by World Health Organization and European Council. Medknow Publications 2013-04-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2013/36/2/65/128870 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:128871 2013-04-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Preliminary investigation of naturally occurring radionuclide in some six representative cement types commonly used in Cameroon as building material Ndontchueng, MM Simo, A Njinga, RL Beyala, JF Kryeziu, D The present study was aimed at the determination of the specific activity of naturally occurring radionuclides and evaluation of the radiological health hazards in 24 cement samples representing six cement types commonly used in Cameroon for building construction have been analyzed. A high purity germanium detector spectrometer was used for quantification of gamma emitting radionuclide in the cements to demonstrate the radiological health hazards. Terrestrial absorbed dose rate (D), annual effective dose, radium equivalent activity, external/internal hazard index, activity gamma and alpha index caused by gamma emitting natural radionuclide are determined from the obtained values of <sup>226</sup> Ra, <sup>232</sup> Th and <sup>40</sup> K. The calculated values of the absorbed dose rate and the indoor annual effective dose are slightly higher as compared to the recommended world-wide values. The details of the samples preparation procedure and the gamma-ray spectrometry technique are presented, together with the preliminary investigated results of specific activity of naturally occurring radionuclide chains for six representative cement type-analyzed in this current work. Medknow Publications 2013-04-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2013/36/2/71/128871 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:128873 2013-04-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Para-tert-butylcalix[4]arene as promising complexing agent for removal of the strontium from the aqueous medium Sharma, N Rana, S Shivkumar, HG Sharma, RK Strontium-90 is one of radioactive nuclear fallout products, can cause serious health effects. Efficient techniques are needed to remove radioactive strontium from contaminated persons. In this study complexation properties of the p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene has been evaluated against cold strontium nitrate. Ultra violet-visible (UV-vis) and fluorescence spectrophotometric techniques were used for the qualitative analytical screening and the inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) technique used for the quantitative complexation of p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene with strontium nitrate. UV-vis, fluorescence spectroscopy and ICP-AES studies confirmed the complexation of p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene and strontium. Extraction study of strontium from picric acid by trans-chelation method proves that p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene is nearly 87% ± 3% effective. Complexation can be attributed to the cation-lone pair interaction and the bonding between the Sr <sup>2+</sup> and the hydroxyl group of the p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene implying its promise as a complexing agent for the removal of strontium. Medknow Publications 2013-04-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2013/36/2/78/128873 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:128874 2013-04-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Additional imaging dose from kV-cone beam computed tomography Ping, HS Fadilah, N Kandaiya, S Objectives: The objective of the following study is to provide the quantitative imaging dose dependency on treatment region and scanning settings concerning the additional imaging doses from kV-cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans. Materials and Methods: Patient imaging dose measurements were performed using head and body cylindrical poly methyl metha acrylate (PMMA) phantoms, 0.125 cm <sup>3</sup> ionization chamber and electrometer and metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor dosimeter. Results: The dose values for the pelvis phantom was found vary from 8.6 mGy to 22.2 mGy for 120 kVp, 1040 mAs. For the head phantom, the dose values vary from 0.71 mGy to 1.37 mGy for 100 kVp, 36.1 mAs. For head scanning mode, the peripheral doses are greater than the central axis doses by a magnitude of 1.3-2 with the largest found consistently at 3 o'clock position of the PMMA head phantom. For the pelvis scan, the peripheral doses are greater than the central doses by a magnitude of 2.1-2.6 with the largest found consistently at 9 o'clock position of the PMMA pelvis phantom. Conclusion: One should be aware of the additional imaging dose with daily kV-CBCT when setting up CBCT scanning protocol and should try to reduce the high voltage usage since reduction of the tube voltage can reduce radiation dose to the patient, especially for pediatric patients. Medknow Publications 2013-04-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2013/36/2/85/128874 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:128875 2013-04-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Effective center measurement of long counter and calibration 241Am Be neutron source Moghadam, SR Davani, FA Danaei, M Long counter (LC) is one of the standard instruments in neutron source flux measurements. Its counting efficiency is independent on the neutron energy and can be useful device in many neutron physics applications. In this paper, LC effective center for a <sup>241</sup> Am-Be neutron source has been measured in two cases one with source inside a collimator and other with bare neutron source. The effective center for the neutron source inside collimator and under bare conditions has been measured to be 13.5 cm and 9.5 cm, respectively. Using effective center and flux at various distances, the emission rate of the source has been estimated. Neutron emission rate was found to be (4.78 ± 0.164) Χ 10 <sup>7</sup> and (4.92 ± 0.37) Χ 10 <sup>7</sup> n/s for the source inside the collimator and bare source, respectively. This technique is one of the useful methods to determine neutron emission rate and for neutron fields' calibration. Medknow Publications 2013-04-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2013/36/2/90/128875 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:128876 2013-04-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
News and Information Pushparaja Medknow Publications 2013-04-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2013/36/2/95/128876 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:137472 2013-07-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Distribution of pollutants in ground water samples collected from uranium mining area Maity, S Sahu, SK Pandit, GG Environmental pollution by chemical pollutants such as heavy metals, radionuclides, and anionic constituents such as sulfate and nitrate originated from mines and mining operations can become a very important source of contamination in water. Pollutants mainly present in the chemical industrial wastes as well as in the low level liquid releases from the nuclear fuel cycle. The solid hazardous radioactive wastes arising are usually disposed of in near surface/shallow land burial facilities. The heavy metals components of these solid wastes (radioactive and stable) could find their way either into the ground water through infiltrating water or to the soil by runoff. In this study, an approach is made for distribution of pollutants in ground water collected from seven locations around the premises of a uranium mining site, Turamdih located at Jharkhand state of India. Major and trace elements such as Na, K, Zn, Ni, Mn, Fe, Pb, Cu, Al, Ba, Mo, and U, etc., were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry and differential pulse adsorptive stripping voltammetry. Sulfate, nitrate, chloride, and fluoride were analyzed using ion chromatogram. Bicarbonate was analyzed by titration method. Medknow Publications 2013-07-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2013/36/3/106/137472 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:137474 2013-07-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Concentration and activity ratio of thorium isotopes in surface soil around proposed uranium mining site in India Srivastava, SK Prasad, KV Balbudhe, AY Savithri, PP Ravi, PM Tripathi, RM Unconformity type of uranium deposits at Lambapur and Peddagattu located in Nalgonda District of Andhra Pradesh, India has been reported. Soil surveillance for isotopic thorium belonging to two different radioactive decay chains provide information on characterization of soil formation due to weathering of underlying host rocks. Thorium concentration and their isotopic activity ratio in localized soil samples were assessed. Thorium concentration and <sup>230</sup> Th/ <sup>232</sup> Th activity ratio were observed to be in the range of 15 ± 3 mg/kg to 132 ± 15 mg/kg and 0.21 ± 0.07-0.68 ± 0.05, respectively. A significant wide variation in thorium concentration and that of activity ratio for localized area soil indicates the soil development due to a different type of underlying host rocks. Activity ratio of <sup>228</sup> Th/ <sup>232</sup> Th in the soil samples of the study area are observed to vary from 0.87 ± 0.05 to 1.07 ± 0.15 with a mean of 0.96 ± 0.02, indicating secular equilibrium between <sup>232</sup> Th and its daughter product <sup>228</sup> Th. The study describes the application of isotopic thorium activity as a chronological indicator for geological characterization. Medknow Publications 2013-07-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2013/36/3/109/137474 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:137476 2013-07-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Natural radioactivity of ground water in some areas in Aden governorate South of Yemen Region Harb, S El-Kamel, AH Zahran, AM Abbady, AA Ahmed, FA This paper presents the concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides <sup>226</sup> Ra, <sup>232</sup> Th and <sup>40</sup> K measured in groundwater samples collected from Aden governorate South of Yemen Region using gamma spectroscopy. A total of 37 groundwater samples were collected from four areas in Aden governorate. The average activity concentrations for groundwater from Beer Ahmed area were 1.60 Bq/L, 1.25 Bq/L and 16.90 Bq/L for <sup>226</sup> Ra, <sup>232</sup> Th and <sup>40</sup> K respectively and from Beer Fadle area were 1.45 Bq/L, 0.87 Bq/L and 19.8 Bq/L for <sup>226</sup> Ra, <sup>232</sup> Th and <sup>40</sup> K, respectively, while that for groundwater samples from Daar-saad area were 1.27 Bq/L, 1.18 Bq/L and 18.28 Bq/L for <sup>226</sup> Ra, <sup>232</sup> Th and <sup>40</sup> K, respectively and Al-Masabian area were 1.55 Bq/L, 1.421 Bq/L and 19.03 Bq/L for <sup>226</sup> Ra, <sup>232</sup> Th and <sup>40</sup> K respectively. Furthermore, annual effective dose equivalent of ingestion of these waters was calculated. The results showed that the annual dose obtained in the present study was much higher than the recommended value (0.1 mSv/year) as reported by WHO. The results were compared with those for drinking water. Medknow Publications 2013-07-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2013/36/3/115/137476 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:137477 2013-07-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Natural radioactivity levels and the radiological health implications of tailing enriched soil and sediment samples around two mining sites in Southwest Nigeria Isinkaye, MO The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in tailing enriched soil and sediment samples collected from two mining sites in southwest Nigeria are reported. The samples were analyzed by gamma spectrometry with low background NaI (Tl) detector. The activity concentrations of <sup>40</sup> K, <sup>226</sup> Ra and <sup>232</sup> Th in all the measured samples varied from 249.66 to 1459.25 Bq/kg, 7.62 to 50.31 Bq/kg and 12.68 to 234.18 Bq/kg, respectively in soil samples. For sediment samples, the values varied from 241.86 to 1590.40 Bq/kg, 9.86 to 74.8 Bq/kg and 15.47 to 145.46 Bq/kg for <sup>40</sup> K, <sup>226</sup> Ra and <sup>232</sup> Th, respectively. The results show that the mean activity concentrations of the radionuclides in soil and sediment of the study area are higher than their world-wide average crustal values. The mean concentration of <sup>232</sup> Th is >6 times higher than that of <sup>226</sup> Ra in soil samples from Ijero mining site. This shows that <sup>232</sup> Th is slightly enhanced in the soil from this location than <sup>226</sup> Ra. In order to evaluate the radiological hazards of the natural radioactivity, the radium equivalent activity, external hazard index, absorbed gamma dose rates and the annual effective dose rates were determined. All these hazard indices have mean values, which are within their acceptable limits but higher than their world average values. Medknow Publications 2013-07-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2013/36/3/122/137477 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:137478 2013-07-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Laser flourimetric analysis of uranium in water from Vishakhapatnam and estimation of health risk Bhangare, RC Tiwari, M Ajmal, PY Sahu, SK Pandit, GG Uranium is a naturally occurring radioactive element that is both radiologically and chemically toxic. The presence of uranium in the aquatic environment is due to the leaching from natural deposits, release in mill tailings, the combustion of coal and other fuels, and the use of phosphate fertilizers that contain uranium. Intake of uranium through air and water is normally low, but in circumstances in which uranium is present in a drinking water source, the majority of intake can be through drinking water route. The uranium concentrations in ground water samples from Vishakhapatnam, India were estimated using laser fluorimetric technique and were observed to range from 0.6 to 12.3 ppb. The laser fluorimetry technique was found to be an excellent tool for direct measurement of uranium concentration in water samples at ultra-trace levels. The annual effective dose, cumulative dose for 70 years and the lifetime excess cancer risk from drinking of this water were calculated. The risks were low averaging only 10.6 × 10 <sup>-6</sup> as none of the samples were observed to exceed the WHO recommended uranium concentration limit of 30 ppb. Medknow Publications 2013-07-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2013/36/3/128/137478 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:137479 2013-07-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Development of prototype fiber optics dosimeter for remote radiation level measurements Jayaprakash, A Krishnakumar, DN Dhanasekaran, A Jose, MT Venkatraman, B Murty, SS Measurement of radiation levels in difficult-to-access and hazardous areas, such as hot cells, high active source storage areas, require refined and sensitive remote radiation level measurement techniques. Optical fiber dosimetry has been studied as an emerging method of monitoring radiation remotely and is suitable for use in confined environments that may be inaccessible using existing conventional electronic dosimeters or radiation survey meters. Being light weight and nonintrusive, optical fibers based dosimeters provide several advantages in the field of remote radiation dosimetry and in-vivo medical applications. A prototype fiber optic dosimetry system with extrinsic architecture is designed and developed using optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) technique at Radiological safety division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research. The fiber optic dosimetry system uses OSL material like BaFBr: Eu to detect radiation and a bifurcated optical cable to illuminate the sensor with the suitable light source and also to guide the light from the sensor to the detector. Indigenously developed hardware is used for pulse processing and application software of the system is developed in Microsoft  Visual Basic.Net. This paper depicts the characterization of the dosimetric material, development of hardware and software for the system and calibration of the system using standard source. The  system uses Advantech APAX 5570 base controller with suitable modular add-on cards for data acquisition and controlling. Indigenously developed electronics is used for processing the pulses from the sensor attached to the tip of the bifurcated optical cable. The acquisition of the counts from the electronic circuit and illumination and bleaching time for the sensor pellet is controlled by application software developed in VB.Net. The system is calibrated by irradiating the pellet with different absorbed doses. The system explores the possibility of remote radiation monitoring using OSL technique in real time. The system is portable, simple to use and requires less user intervention to operate. Medknow Publications 2013-07-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2013/36/3/133/137479 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:137480 2013-07-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Dosimetric analysis of intensity modulated radiotherapy plans having one or more pairs of parallel opposed beams among the set of beams in some special cases Gurjar, OP Mishra, SP The purpose of this study was to analyze the dosimetric parameters of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans with a set of beams having one or more pairs of parallel opposed beams for the pelvis, head-and-neck (H and N) and brain cases having large secondary nodes. We selected three pelvis (carcinoma of prostate with pelvic bony mets), three  H and N (two cases of carcinoma of the parotid with large secondary nodes and one case of carcinoma of the base of the tongue with large secondary nodes), and three brain (glioblastoma multiform) IMRT patients. IMRT plans were done with a set of 6-9 beams having one or more pairs of parallel opposed beams. Each plan was done using 6 MV photon energy. Each plan was analyzed on the basis of planning target volume (PTV) coverage with 93%, 95%, 100%, 107%, and 110% of the prescribed dose (PD), organs at risk (OAR) doses, homogeneity index (HI), conformity index (CI), and normal tissue integral dose (NTID). The doses to OARs were well within tolerance limits and the PTV coverage for 93%, 95%, and 100% of PD was obtained very well (followed the radiation therapy oncology group criteria "95% and 99% volume of PTV should receive 95% and 93% of the PD, respectively"), and values of HI, CI, and NTID were also satisfactory. In summary, very good OAR sparing and PTV coverage were observed in all plans. Hence, it can be concluded that use of one or more pairs of parallel opposed beams in IMRT plans in some special cases as selected for this study offers the benefit in terms of critical target volume irradiation, while maintaining the OAR within tolerable limits. Medknow Publications 2013-07-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2013/36/3/138/137480 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:137600 2013-07-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
International commission on radiological protection draft report for consultation: "radiological protection in cone beam computed tomography" Pushparaja Medknow Publications 2013-07-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2013/36/3/143/137600 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:137601 2013-07-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Unscear 2013 Report Haridasan, PP Medknow Publications 2013-07-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2013/36/3/143/137601 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:137467 2013-07-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Exposure to natural sources: Why the concern? Haridasan, PP Medknow Publications 2013-07-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2013/36/3/97/137467 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.
oai:medknow.com:137471 2013-07-01 all journal:Radiat_Prot_Environ
Dose assessment for natural radioactivity resulting from tiling granite rocks Allam, KA Ramadan, AA Taha, A The gamma radiation in samples of a variety of natural tiling granite rocks from different quarries located in South Sinai, Egypt used in the building industry is measured, using high-resolution g-ray spectroscopy. The samples pulverized, sealed in plastic Marinelli beakers, are analyzed in the laboratory with an accumulating time between 18 and 24 h each. Activity concentrations are determined for <sup>238</sup> U (from 18 to 361 Bq/kg), <sup>232</sup> Th (range from 20 to 316 Bq/kg) and <sup>40</sup> K (from 499 to 3089 Bq/kg). The total absorbed dose rates in air ranged from 42 to 440 nGy/h. The external hazard index ranged (from 0.23 to 2.49), the internal hazard index ranged (from 0.28 to 3.38), and the activity utilization index ranged (from 0.69 to 5.90). Applying dose criteria recently recommended by the European Union for superficial materials, 25 of the samples meet the exemption dose limit of 0.3 mSv/year, two of them meet the upper dose limit of 1 mSv/year and only one clearly exceeds this limit. Medknow Publications 2013-07-01 http://www.rpe.org.in/text.asp?2013/36/3/99/137471 en Copyright 2014 Radiation Protection and Environment.